Ash falls and runins crops and mashinery, distirbs transport, polloute the aire and causes breathing difficaltes ( respinary problems)
lava flows burn and bury crops
submarine, costal or island eruptions cause tusnamis
flooding results from lava flows and volacnos, debris blocks and divertes rivers, e.g the water level at sprit lake rose by80m after the earthquake at st.helens eruption in 1980.
6 MARKER ANSWER
the damaging effects of volcanic eruptions can be reduced in various wyas. if a volcano is known to eruptoften or soon, you could set out saftey zones. thsis would allow people to be safe. these zone could alow people to be forbidden to enter. this woulld make evacuations easier. an example of this is the zoneing scheme of soufiere hillsvolcanic eruption in1995. another way to reduce the damage could be to ahve scientists/geologists to monitor on site of a volcano to predict the nextr eruption. it could then be monitored and the closer acreas could be evactuated first then the outer areas. this couls be used in MEDCs as they have more money to pay for jobs such as this.
Positives of living near a volcano
- SOIL AND FARMING
- IN itally, laege numbers of people live on slopes of vesuvious and etna due to the fertility of the soil which provides rich nutrients, good for vine yards, olives and citus fruits
- GEOTHEMAL ENERGY
- heat from magma sources underground close to the earths surface are a good source of heatin volcanic areas and can be used as a source of geothermal energy to produce electricity,heat and can generate turbines.
- due to spectacular scenery associated with volcanic landscapes and features such as lava flows, volcanic areas are popular with tourists. this is good for businesses such as hotels and cafes and provides the local communitys with jobs
- BUILDING MATERIALS
- in newzeland, auckland volcanos have been quarried for bassult and sconia, which can be used in construction for airpots and buildings
- INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS E.G PUMIA STONE
- found in hard skin pads and facial pads.
Tropical storms and how are they measured?
TROPICAL storms are intense storms associated with high winds and torrential rain, they are known as hurricanes, cyclones and tythones.
They are naumed using human names so they are easier to distingusie and prevent confusen. they used to be named after woman due to their 'attitude' but was changed dur to sexisum.
the saffir-simpson scale tells you which catagory a hurricane would come under using details such as wind speed, stormsurge and the damage caused.
catagory wind speed storm surge damage
- 1 120-149kph 1-2m minimal
- 2 140-179kph 2-3m modarate
- 3 180-209kph 3-4m extensive
- 4 210-249kph 4-5m extreme
- 5 350kph+ 5-6m catastrophic
TROPICAL STORMS-BASIC DETAILS
defined by the saffier- simpson scale
you can tell if one is coming due to the clouds
named from a onwards exept q,u,x,y,z due to a lack of names
associated with high winds and torrential rain
form over warm ocen currents 27 degrees
distributed between only the tropics of capricorn and the tropics of cancer
time of the year= late summer to early autum as the sea is at the temp and increase evaporation
lattitude 5* between north and south to start a spinning motion
low atmosphere shear to allow the air to rise easily
only form over sea but can travel over land
How does a tropical storm form
1. above the warm ocean, several thunder storms develop.
2. the seas warm surface air rises to combine with the thunder storms
3. due to the earths rotation, a spinning motion is created, more warm air rises>cools> condences creating clouds and relesing energy
4. wind speed starts to increse due to air rising fater and cooling downwards
5. the tropicals storms move over the ocean, moist warm air rises up, cool air down, 120km wind speeds created and get faster and faster as they travel to wards land> the sea being the source of energy.
preparation and prediction and effects
MEDCS- have resourses such as tech to predict and monitor tropicsl storms, using satilites and equiped air craft. they equipted to train emergency services appropriatly to educate people about what to do. Storm warning signs can be issued to enable the population to prepare themselves for the storm. they can prepare emergency food, water and other kits.
LEDCS- less prepared, rely on other counrtys aid to help the, as they have very little money.
intense stroms can destroy whole communitys, buildings and communication networks.
a wildfire is an uncontollable fire which is extensive and spreads rapidly from its original source.it can change direction at anytime. they usally occor where there is lots of natural vegitation.
Can be caused by: lightning (the biggest cause), light shining on glass (magnifying effect), arson, volcans, earthquakes,campfires,lava bombs, cigeretes, sparks from train tracks, militaryand accidents.
Primary effects= loss of life, injury, destruction of property and posetions, burning of vegitation and crops, water and air polloution and health problems
Secondary effects= loss of jobs and income, homelessness, loss of infrastructure, cost of insurance rising, damage to economy, increase soil erosion and risk of land slides and loss of ecosystems and habitats
Effects of wild fires
- PHYSICAL= views/sights, houses burnt down, smoke in air-= breathed in. cars destroyed, infrastructure destroyed
- SOCIAL= broken communities- loss of houses, pressure on emergency services, loss of lives, evacuation-people leaving homes , property loss, stress, injurys,depression, grief,break downs,tromatic
- ECONOMIC= Insurance pay up(premiums), crop loss(income), loss of houses, property loss
- ENVIRONMENTAL= loss of vegitation,/crops/farmland/livestock,income, smoke in air, tripical rainforsts destroyed, injury, deaths, polloution, loss of land
CASE STUDY; EQ ;KOBE,JAPAN
Kobe, Japan, 1995 MEDC
17th january, earthquake= heavy populated area. 7.4 on the richer scale,
subduction of philipine and pacific plates beneth the eurasion plate.
- Primary effects:
- 5100 deaths
- 35000 people injured
- houses destroyed by fires and gas fractures
- 316000 homless and at camps
short term= evacuated, rations provided, resuce teams searched for 10 days
Long term = moved away permantly, jobs created in construction as part of a re-building program
CASE STUDY; EQ; Port-a-prince, hati 2010, LEDC
12th January. magnitude 7.0. usally EQ are rare here. caused by north america and caribiean plates conservitive. shallow quake. 6.2 miles underground.
PRIMARY: 220 000 deaths, 300 000 injuries,190 000 homes destroyed,30 hospitals damaged,3,978 schools destroyed,2% people have clean water,27% accces to sanitation
SECONDARY EFFECTS:homes and businesses destroyed, 1.5 million people homless after 6 moths and 1m after 11), destruction made rescuse work difficlete, airport destroyed, lack of food, water, shelter. survivors had to dig out family and friends with bare hands
SHORT TERM: aid donated, people dug out buildings, people housed in tents, food and water aid sistributed slowy
LONG TERM: rebuilding was very slow. 17%of workforce was killed. lossess were $7-8billion which is the equivilent of 120% of hatis GDP. all but 1 goverment buildings were destroyed. progress is very slow
CASESTUDY;Chances peak, monserat, 1995-97, LEDC
small island of the caribian. north american plate subducted under the caribian plate.volcanic area south if the island,before 1995 it was dormant for over 300 years. 1995 it gave off warning signs once awoke it was active for 5 years, most intence eruptions happened in 1997. it was devastated by phyroclastic flow. it had a small population of 11,00 people. dispite evacuations, 19 people died because a group of people decided to stay and look after their crops. the lahars destroyed large areas of lanmd, homes and buildings destroyed, only 1 hospital, 1 airport and some roads left.
Short term responces= evacuation, abandoment of the capital city, british goverment gave money. unemploymet rose.
Long term responces= exclution zone was set up, a site was built to monitor the environmet, new roads and new airport built, services expanded, presence raise tourisum
EYJAFJALLAJOKULL (E15),iceland , 2010
iceland>mid atlantic ridge>constructive> north america and eurasian plates.
EQ and volcanic> crust beneath atlantic ocean
20 march 2010>first eruption
ash heights of9.5km