Geography, Hostile world

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  • Created by: jessica
  • Created on: 09-06-13 16:33

SOUFRIER HILLS VOC VS EYJAFALLAJOKULL

causes of the eruptions, simularities diffrneces

both had major impacts of molten rock and lava, sh did not have a earthquake, e15 did, diffrent plate boundries- sh=destructive, e15= constructive

effects of eruptions simularities diffrneces

cause respinary problems and eye, nose, throught and skin irritation. air flight issues due to ash clouds. sh more intense heat. e15 had a bigger issue across contitnets due to the ash clouds

responces to the earthquake

suffered from shortness of reswources and trade. recived good and bad tourisum. good =people wanted to see the dramatic senery and evisation. bad= could not get there dur to ash clouds

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Structure of the earth

Layers,

1. inner core- centre, hottest part of earth, solid> iron and nickle, temp= 5,500 d

2. outer core- surrounds inner core,liquid layer> iron and nickle> extreamly high temps

3. the mantle- widest selection, diamiter = 2,900 km > semi molten rock (magma), upper part is hard, lower part is soft. (melting stages)

4. The crust- top layer, we live on,thin layer,60 km thick, solid rock.

continetnal crust- land

ocientic crust- water, heavier ( always goes down)

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Tectonics

Types of plate boundries 

1. Constructive- Plates move away from eachother, New crust is formed.(shield volcaneo)

2. Destructive- Plates move towards each other, Destroy the crust(composivive volcanoes)

3. Conservitive- Plates slide past eachother horizontally, Crust is neither formed or destroyed 

Ocenic plate is heavier than continental plate.

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volcano's

A volcano is a opening in the earths crust from which ash and lava erupt. 

Cone shaped mountins or hills.

When Magma reaches the earths surface it is called lava, when cooled, it is called rock,

Volcanoes can be classified as active (erupt frequently), dormant (temp active, not extinct) or extinct.(unlikely to erupt again)

Compositive volcanoes are made from layers of thick ash and lava.

shield volcanoes are made up from runny lava.

A dormant volcano is dangerous because it could erupt at any time without warning.

Hazards of compositive volcanoes include it erupts thick and sticky lava and occor at destructive pb.

Some volcanoes happen underwater, along the sea bed or ocean floor

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Volcano's

The formation of a volcano

1. Magma rises through cracks or weaknesses in the earths crust.

2. Pressure builds up inside the earth.

3. When the pressure is released, e.g as a plate movment, magma explode to the surface causing a volcanic eruption.

4. The lava from the eruption cools to form a new crust.

5. Over time, after sevreal eruptions, the rock builds up and a volcano forms.

SHIELD VOLCANO, constructive boundriys, low, gental sloping sides, thin, runny lava, frequent but usally gental eruptions

COMPOSITIVE VOLCANO, made of layers of ash and lava, destructive pb, pyroclastic flow. 

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volcano's- eruption effects

Devastating effects of people and the environment.Although volcanos can have a positive effect of land.  can help explain why people live near volcanos. 

Positive     

  • dramatic scenery>attracts tourists>brings income to areas
  • lava and ash deposits> nutrients and fertile soil> good agriculture
  • High levels of heat> geothermal energy

Negitives

  • lives lost
  • ash and mud> mix with rain> mudflows>'lahars'
  • lava flows and lahars damage settlements> clear areas of agriculture and woodland. 
  • Human and natural landscapes destroyed or changed forever.

Managing effects of volcanos

not possible to prevent eruptions,carful managment of hazards can minimize damage cause, prediction is the most important aspect.give people time to plan and evacuate.

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Predicting and Preparing for volcanos

Warning signs

  • 100's of small earthquakes cause magma to rise though cracks
  • Tempretures around volcanos rise as activity increases
  • When close to erupting>gases released>higher content of gases= closer to eruption

Monitering tequniques

  • 'seisometers' are used to detect earthquakes
  • Thermal imaging and satillite cameras can be used to detect heat around volcanos
  • gas samples may be taken and chemicla sensors used.

These techniques are becoming more accurate, e.g mount etna in itally

Early warnings and predictions allow people to evacuate  and get prepared quickly

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Preparing and predicting, volcanos

Preparing

detailed plans needed, every one but be educated about plans

  • create and exclution zone around the volcano
  • being ready always incase of a quick evacuation
  • have an emergency supply of food and water and other basic nesesities
  • good communication system.

Predicting

Not easy to predict, ways of monitoring

  • laser beams detect plate movment
  • seisometer picks up vibrations> indicate possible eruptions
  • radon gas> can be detected using various monitors.

not all techniques are 100% reliable, thats why planning and preparing is important.

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prepared- volcanos

Being prepared is important if significant arnings are not given

  • people living near earthquakes should know what to do, taining drills, communications education such as tv and radio.
  • emergecy kits which include first aid, blanket, food (especialy tinned) and water
  • proofed buildings
  • proofed bridges and roads
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Strategies for volcanic protection

  • make sure dusk masks are avalible at all times to prevent respinary problems
  • make sure you have a safe and easy used of quick transportation eg car
  • plan evactuation routes
  • long.short term plans
  • safe place to go in your home such as a panic room
  • a place where evacuees can go
  • make sure there is enough supplies
  • save some money each month towards  ermergnecys such as this
  • prepare farmers land, eg. growth and livestock indoors 
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Earthquakes

Caused by the release of built up pressure from inside the earth crust. power is measured using the richer scale (1-10)

An earthquake is the shaking and vibrating of the earths crustdue to movement of plates. eq can happen along any type of plate boundry.plates get stuck during movment causing the pressure untill tention relsesd> earthquakes occor.

focas = the point inside the earth where the tention is being caused.

epicentre- the point closesed to the surface from the focas

EQ energy is released through semetic waves> spread out across focas> less stengh= further from the epicentere/focas

Primary effects= the events that happen as a direct result of an earhtquake such as buildings collapsing.

Secondary effects= events that happen as a result of the primary effects e.g copapsing buildings= homless people.

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Measuring earthquakes and effects

Meausrement the power of an earhtquake can be measured by a seismometer.> detects vibrations> produce a seismograph. Strengh, magnitude meaused via the richer scale, numbered 1-10. EQ measuring 1 or 2 on the rshappen everyday, very common, so small that noone can feel them, detector still picks them up. EQ measuring 7 or 8 can be devestating, kobe, japan meausred 7.4 Effects

  • destroy settlements
  • kill people and animals
  • after shocks can be more dangerous
  • short term effects (immmidiate)
  • longterm effects
  • social impacts (people)
  • economic effects (money)
  • environmental (landscape)
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S,E,E

SOCIAL IMPACTS

SHORT TERM- people killed or injured, homes destroyed, transport and communication links disrupted, water pipes burst, water contaminated

LONG TERM-disease spread, re-housing (refrugee camps)

ECONOMIC IMPACTS

SHORT TERM-shops and busineses destroyed > looting> damage to communication and transport> trade poroblems

LONG TERM- rebuilding costs are high, income lost

ENVORONMENTAL IMPACTS

SHORT TERM-   landscape destroyed, fire spread, gas pipes explotions, fires<woodland,landslides,tusnamis

LONG TERM- natural and human landmarks lost

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KOBE VS HATI EQ

  • simularities
  • diffrences

both earthquakes.hati- more deaths and more disasterous,trouble due to sitting on 2(h) 4(k) plate boundrieskobe- bad short/long term plans, no emergency staff, lack of resuce equitment, stopped searching for survivors after 24 hours, goverment refused help from other countries. same amount of homes/building etc destroyed,hati- searched for weeks, lots of equitment, money from all across world same amount of homless,kobe= quick recoverys (MEDC) simular streangh, urban/build up areas, Hati= slow recovery= people still living in camps(LEDC)occored in january/winter, shallow=more intense, 

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EQ preparedness and problems and soloutions

Preparedness= being ready for an earthquake

GOVERMENTS- action plans, service plans, alerts (tv, radio) education, posters, alarms, sirens, evacuation plans, well constrcted buildings, insurance deals, drills

INDIVIDUALs- emergency kits, action plans (for homes), ecape routres, panic rooms/shelters, access to alerts

PROBLEMS AND SOLOUTIONs

  • MEDC
  • problem= tall buildings sway and colapse in a earthquake
  • soloution= computer contolled weights in the roof to help contoll swaying
  • LEDC
  • Problem= brick walls not strong enough and when shaken, collapse
  • soloution= frame with concrete pillars and connected to foor fo strenghen to walls= less likely to collapse
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EQ proof building features MEDC AND LEDC

  • MEDC

  • 1. computer contolled weights to prevent swaying of buildings
  • 2. cross bracing adds streng and prevents twisitng
  • 3. automatic window shutters prevent broken glass
  • 4. reinforced concrete and tention cables around the lift shaft
  • 5. automatic sprinkler syestems and gas shut off prevents fires
  • 6. strenghenedreinforced road concrete suppots
  • 7. deep building foundations
  • 8. underground rubber shock absorbers
  • 9. based insulatior that allows side ways motion

LEDC

  • hollow concrete bricks designed to cause less damage due to falls
  • roofs made out of reinforced concrete
  • reinforced steal pillars provide strengh and flexibility
  • foundations made form stone= usally from remains of houses
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appropriate technology EQ

the use of appropriate technology can protect poepke in LEDCs. 1 billion poeple live in houses made of bamboo, it is stong but bends easily  and can be made to survive an earthquake

KEY TERMS

retro-fittings= the addition of new tech to older buildings

Appropriate tech= tech desgined with concideration with the community it is desgined for, e.g LECD= affordable tech

Building codes= regulations which state how a building should be constructed in order to be safe

If a country is poor, yet have experienced an earthquake, They know its bad and how bad the effec ts are , but know they will be unable to pay for the damage, this is opposite to richer counrtys. both poor and rich countrys are at the same risk, yet the long term effects could be majorly diffrent

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SOUFRIER HILLS VOC VS EYJAFALLAJOKULL

causes of the eruptions, simularities diffrneces

both had major impacts of molten rock and lava, sh did not have a earthquake, e15 did, diffrent plate boundries- sh=destructive, e15= constructive

effects of eruptions simularities diffrneces

cause respinary problems and eye, nose, throught and skin irritation. air flight issues due to ash clouds. sh more intense heat. e15 had a bigger issue across contitnets due to the ash clouds

responces to the earthquake

suffered from shortness of reswources and trade. recived good and bad tourisum. good =people wanted to see the dramatic senery and evisation. bad= could not get there dur to ash clouds

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volcanic hazards

ash falls and ruins crops and mashianry. 

transport pollloutes air and causes breathing issues

lava flows burn and bury crops

submarine, costan and is land eruptions cause

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Comments

jessica

Hello,

Just to let you know this is only half the resource and I am making the second part now

Thanks

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