Geography GCSE Unit 2: The Development Gap

A revision guide on the Development Gap with Case Studies 

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  • Created by: Lily
  • Created on: 15-06-11 18:46

Development Indicators

First of all, lets get simple...

What is Development?

It's a measure of progress by a country or area 

Now, there are many different development indicators, these show how well the country is progressing.

(I have highlight those usually used in exam questions)

GNP (Gross national product): The value of everything a country produces.

GNI (Gross national income): The average income of people in a country

HDI (Human development index): This actually measure how induvidual people are and how good their Quality of life is. It is not an average and doesn't produce a figure that only focuses on the wealthy parts of the Country/Area.

Birth Rate: Number of births per 1000  per year 

Inafant Mortaility: The number of child deaths under the age of 5 per 1000 per year

People per Doctor: The number of people on average per doctor (This suggests how weathly the country is)

Literacy Rate: Percentage of people who can read and write (This also can suggest the countries education schemes or community)

Life expectancy: Average age you are expected to live until (you can cross reference this back to people per doctor)

finally a question might ask to define the "Quality of Life"

It is a measure of a person's well-being and how satisfied they are with their life

The Case study for this question would be the Grameen Bank

self help schemes and loans let the people earn independance so that they do no depend on aid. It teaches people responsibility and life lessons and therefore improves the quality of life because they have learnt to keep on improving without having to rely on aid or worry about getting into debt. Many can set up businessess that will generate the money to repay their loans

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People per Doctor: The number of people on average per doctor (This suggests how wealthy the country is)

Literacy Rate: Percentage of people who can read and write (This also can suggest the countries education schemes or community)

Life expectancy: Average age you are expected to live until (you can cross reference this back to people per doctor)

finally a question might ask to define the "Quality of Life"

It is a measure of a person's well-being and how satisfied they are with their life

The Case study for this question would be the Grameen Bank

self help schemes and loans let the people earn independence so that they do no depend on aid. It teaches people responsibility and life lessons and therefore improves the quality of life because they have learnt to keep on improving without having to rely on aid or worry about getting into debt. Many can set up businesses that will generate the money to repay their loans

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Contrasting levels of development

Social indicators       Economic indicators       Demographic (population)

People per doctor        GNP                                    Indicators 

Literacy rate                 GNI                                     Birth rate

Life expectancy                                                       Death rate

Quality of life

What is the North-South Divide?

This is a line that indicates which parts of the world are more MEDC or LEDC.

The south of the line is typically LEDC apart from Australia.

The North side is mainly MEDC.


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If asked to draw a line of a map,

make the line go from across the left hand side horizontally and draw it so it "cuts" through where Spain and the top of Africa almost meet.

Carry on through and then double back and exclude Australia from the South Divide. 

There may be a case study question for this topic, in which you would compare two countries with contrasting levels of development in the EU

(I would suggest comparing Bulgaria and Germany)

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Natural Hazards: The impacts on development

Natural hazards can be a reason why a country is behind on development. 

Prone areas to things like: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, floods and tornados etc

and the areas that suffer are usually MEDS's where the country cannot help itself are the countries discussed in this topic. 

Case Study for natural Hazards: Haiti Earthquake 2010

- 200,000 people died (demographic)

- 250,000 houses were destroyed (social, economic) 

- $13.2 million worth of damage (economic) 

-North side of the island rose up, exposing the coral reef; kill it. (environmental) South side sunk flooding agricultural land (economic)

- Port Au Price (the docks) was destroyed so aid was hard to reach them (economic)


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Responses

-Dominican red cross aid team mobile medical units, 10 mobile kitchens, 36 doctors and 40 trucks of food (Immediate) 

- Engineers designed reinforced building in Port Au Prince with stronger foundations (long term) 

Remember!

These questions are worth 8 marks, so do a small intro where you state the case study name and then continue to write 4 paragraphs with at least 1 fact/figure in them each.

your method in your head should be

point

explain (this means that)


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evidence (your facts or figure)

relate back to question (e.g This is why it effects development...) fact/figure in them each.

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Problems caused by poor access to clean water

 Where is all the water?

In places like the tropics and temperature regions. England is an example as are many countries around the equator.

Countries that are not able to get access to water easily depend on water under the ground such as an Aquifer: A NATURAL STORE OF WATER UNDER GROUND

Key vocab

Water stress: Where supplies of water are limited

Fresh water availability: How available water is for the people

Sanitation: Keeping bacteria away and ensuring places are clean. Also, having the facilities to keep it up. 


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Problems

Without it, water provides a good trade link and this will cost countries economically.

It provides thousands of people with a life source, where there is little to come by the country will start to feel the effects, such as illness and increased death rate and infant mortality.

The lower the water supplies the lower your life expectancy is.

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Is world trade fair?

Many developing countries complain that world trade is dominated by the most

powerful countries and that their products reach the more developed countries

rather than the areas that need it.

Developing countries can provide trade but the farmers who work for it often don't

receive the final sales and therefore do not benefit. 

Most developing countries only rely on one or two main products in which they trade with and these people cannot control the prices they get for it.


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What can be done to make it more fair for all?

Fair Trade: (It's not a charity; it's an organisation designed to stop the exploitation of others) 

 famers and producers in developing countries are given a fair deal by the buyers in developing countries; prices paid are always higher than the cost of production 

(When answering an exam question on this; think how this will improve development and don't forget the technique "this means that" and "Therefore")

The trade is something that the entire world depends on, countries that cannot

produce the products they need can swap the products they can produce for

the ones needed.  This means that everyone can get their own needs by

supplying someone else.

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Fair trade will ensure that the producers will always gain more money and earn what they should, this money can then go into the community and THEREFORE improve the local areas and further their development.

A fair trade case study is... Dominica 

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Different types of Aid

Voluntary Aid: Comes from the people ( no government involved )

Bilateral Aid: Aid given by the government and is usually for large projects. The country has no control over the aid

Multilateral aid: Given by the government for development

You must be able to distinguish this from other types of aid. Remember it is all about DEVELOPMENT

How will it reduce inequalities?

-Wealthy countries will provide more aid

- It gets people involved in their own community to speed up development 


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problems?

- donors are in control of aid and might insist on unsuitable aid

- aid might neglect a community but aid an individual (it may be narrow minded)

- aid is in a forms of loans

The case study for this topic is: Cyclone Sidr- Nov 2007 Bangladesh 

-500 people killed

-5 million without food and water or shelters 

this can be improved on, remember to look at responses (long and short) and how it effected the people and then RELATE back to the question.

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Ways in which the EU is reducing inequalities

EU regional development fund (2007-2013)

- stimulates economic growth 

- encourages countries to work together and invest in one another 

- used to create sustainable jobs.

EU social fund (Investing in people)

- improve employment ($75 billion was invested) 

- Aims to help the most vulnerable in society 

- provides schooling

- provide communities with ideas of sustainability so that they can continue to develop. 


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(with this remember to relate is back to the idea that this is all for improving DEVELOPMENT, say "this means that" for example, "schooling is provided which means that people have the knowledge of conception and how to control birth rates, this means that places with not be as over crowded and therefore the government doesn't have to provide for as many people and focus on developing the area)

Cohesion fund

-looks for ways to improve on the environment 

- renewable energy 

(this means that more money can go into development and there is a solid base to build from that is healthy and good for the environment which means that the development will be beneficial for the next generation)


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Final round up of case studies

Now that the topic has been condensed down ( I hope ) 

here is a list of the case studies that I think will be related to "The development gap"

-A natural hazard: Haiti

-A development project: The grameen Bank 

-Self improvement: Sao Paulo, Brazil 

These are the case studies that you should know inside out, learn as many facts and figures and use those key phrases

THIS MEANS THAT

THEREFORE.... You will get a better grade (;

I hope this has helped and good luck with the exam <3 ! 

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