Geography G1 WJEC GCSE - Case Studies

The case studies for WJEC G1 Geography GCSE Exam.

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  • Created by: Chris
  • Created on: 13-06-12 19:05

High Force Waterfall

- Located on the River Tees.

- Rock consists of Dolerite (hard volcanic) and Limestone (soft).

- A gorge is cut through the landscape upstream where the waterfall has retreated due to erosion.

- Footpaths and a viewing point for tourists.

- "Penine Way Footpath" to walk alongside.

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Boscastle Flood - General

- Flood occurred on 16th August 2004.

- On the River Valency

- In Cornwall

- It was in the afternoon.


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Boscastle Flood: Causes

Causes

- Steep valley channeled the water and helped it to travel to the river quicker. (short lag time)

- The ground was already saturated from previous rainfall. 

- Vegetation near the river was knocked down and obstructed the flow of water at the bridge, acting as a dam.

- Impermeable rock (slate) in the ground and tarmac in the vilage meant that there was Rapid Surface Runoff causing the water to travel to the river faster.

- Normally 120mm of rain in August     The flood caused 200mm of rain over 4hrs

- It was a freak rain storm (caused by global warming)

- The river source is 280m above sea level so steep gradient so water flowed fast

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Boscastle Flood: Effects

- Businesses destroyed.

- Insurance costs rose for the area after the flood.

- Homes and personal belongings destroyed.

- 80 cars washed away.

- Abrasion of the river bed and banks.

- Heavy Deposition as river loses energy further downstream.

- £300 million of damage.

- 100 people airlifted to safety, no deaths

- 37 buildings damaged

- 5 buildings destroyed

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Boscastle Flood: Solutions

- Make the river channel wider and deeper (hard engineering).

- Move the car park to higher ground.

- Build a debris catching facility upstream (wire mesh to catch sediment & boulders)

- Remove vegetation near the river.

- Make the two bridges taller and wider.

- Flood defence wall (all defences worth £4.6 million).

- Create an area of slower movement upstream to get debris deposited before it gets to the village (Braided River, soft engineering).

- Early warning systems to be warned of a flood in time to evacuate the villagers and nearby livestock.

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Kobe Earthquake: General

- Occurred on 17th January 1995

- 5:46 am

- Lasted 20 seconds

- Magnitude 7.2 Richter Scale

- In Kobe, Japan

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Kobe Earthquake: Causes

- On a destructive plate boundary.

- The focus point was closer to the surface (16km) than in normal circumstances.

- Epicentre was close to a heavily populated area. 

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Kobe Earthquake: Effects

- £100 billion in building and infrastructure damages.

- 5000 people killed.

- 300,000 people homeless.

- Many older wooden buildings collapsed. Newer buildings survived the quake.

- Fires broke out over the city.

- 1300+ aftershocks.

- Industry temporarily destroyed.

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Kobe Earthquake: Solutions

- Japan was well prepared for earthquakes.

- Many buildings were already earthquake proof.

- New laws passed to make buildings more earthquake proof.

- More instruments to monitor seismic activity.

- Railways back in service by August 1995.

- Water, electricity and gas was restored by July 1995.

- 1 year after, 80% of the port was open.

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Soufriere Hills Volcano: Causes

- On a destructive plate boundary.

- The volcano had erupted after a long period of dormancy so was unexpected.

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Soufriere Hills Volcano: Effects

- Pyroclastic flow (ash, rock, gas) burned vegetation.

- 2/3 of the island covered in ash.

- Wildlife on the island disappeared.

- New land formed when Pyroclastic flow reached the sea.

- 60% of housing was destroyed.

- The only hospital was destroyed.

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Soufriere Hills Volcano: Solutions

- Monserratt Volcano Observatory constructed to monitor volcanic activity.

- Tiltmeters to measure the size and the expansion of the volcano over time.

- Thermal Imaging to monitor whether areas of extreme heat are near the surface of the volcano.

- Gas Levels are measured (sulfur dioxide) 5 times a week.

- Lasers to measure the slightest change in the shape and size of the volcano.

- Satalites are used to monitor the changes in shape in the volcano

- Many of these are powered by Solar Panels.

- Remote Cameras take pictures regularly to show change.

- Hazard Map drawn to show danger and safe zones.

- International aid received (£55 million).

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Globalisation: Nokia MNC

LOCATIONS:

- Nokia wants factories to be closer to the consumer.

- They open factories where labour costs, building and tax is cheap.

- 2005 2.2 billion using mobile phones         2009 4 billion using mobile phones

IMPACTS:

- Brings new technology to the LEDC.

- Brings in new jobs for the locals.

- Environmental Damage.

- Higher paid jobs (R+D/HQ) with higher skill level to to the MEDCs because there is a higher level of education so more skilled workers and better communication technology.

- Most of the profits go back to the MEDC.

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Globalisation: TATA Nano MNC

LOCATIONS:

- Located in India.

- Parts are built all over the world (e.g. windscreen from France, Seatbelts from Sweden, body from India).

IMPACTS:

- A cheaper car for India where salary is low.

- This means lots of cars will be sold as demand is high and many don't own a car in India.

- Good for Tata business and Indian economy.

- Provides factory jobs for locals.

- Roads become clogged up.

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Kuapa Kokoo, Ghana & Divine Chocolate: Fairtrade A

ADVANTAGES:

- Fairtrade ensures a fairer price for the coco beans from the farmers.

- Sustainable farming practices.

- Farmers have shares in the company, Divine Chocolate.

- Hand water pumps installed.

- More educated society, new schools developed.

- Healthier, so fewer diseases.

- Increased number of females at work and doing other jobs such as making soap.

DISADVANTAGES:

- The produce is slightly more expensive for the consumer.

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