High Force Waterfall
- Located on the River Tees.
- Rock consists of Dolerite (hard volcanic) and Limestone (soft).
- A gorge is cut through the landscape upstream where the waterfall has retreated due to erosion.
- Footpaths and a viewing point for tourists.
- "Penine Way Footpath" to walk alongside.
Boscastle Flood - General
- Flood occurred on 16th August 2004.
- On the River Valency
- In Cornwall
- It was in the afternoon.
Boscastle Flood: Causes
- Steep valley channeled the water and helped it to travel to the river quicker. (short lag time)
- The ground was already saturated from previous rainfall.
- Vegetation near the river was knocked down and obstructed the flow of water at the bridge, acting as a dam.
- Impermeable rock (slate) in the ground and tarmac in the vilage meant that there was Rapid Surface Runoff causing the water to travel to the river faster.
- Normally 120mm of rain in August The flood caused 200mm of rain over 4hrs
- It was a freak rain storm (caused by global warming)
- The river source is 280m above sea level so steep gradient so water flowed fast
Boscastle Flood: Effects
- Businesses destroyed.
- Insurance costs rose for the area after the flood.
- Homes and personal belongings destroyed.
- 80 cars washed away.
- Abrasion of the river bed and banks.
- Heavy Deposition as river loses energy further downstream.
- £300 million of damage.
- 100 people airlifted to safety, no deaths
- 37 buildings damaged
- 5 buildings destroyed
Boscastle Flood: Solutions
- Make the river channel wider and deeper (hard engineering).
- Move the car park to higher ground.
- Build a debris catching facility upstream (wire mesh to catch sediment & boulders)
- Remove vegetation near the river.
- Make the two bridges taller and wider.
- Flood defence wall (all defences worth £4.6 million).
- Create an area of slower movement upstream to get debris deposited before it gets to the village (Braided River, soft engineering).
- Early warning systems to be warned of a flood in time to evacuate the villagers and nearby livestock.
Kobe Earthquake: General
- Occurred on 17th January 1995
- 5:46 am
- Lasted 20 seconds
- Magnitude 7.2 Richter Scale
- In Kobe, Japan
Kobe Earthquake: Causes
- On a destructive plate boundary.
- The focus point was closer to the surface (16km) than in normal circumstances.
- Epicentre was close to a heavily populated area.
Kobe Earthquake: Effects
- £100 billion in building and infrastructure damages.
- 5000 people killed.
- 300,000 people homeless.
- Many older wooden buildings collapsed. Newer buildings survived the quake.
- Fires broke out over the city.
- 1300+ aftershocks.
- Industry temporarily destroyed.
Kobe Earthquake: Solutions
- Japan was well prepared for earthquakes.
- Many buildings were already earthquake proof.
- New laws passed to make buildings more earthquake proof.
- More instruments to monitor seismic activity.
- Railways back in service by August 1995.
- Water, electricity and gas was restored by July 1995.
- 1 year after, 80% of the port was open.
Soufriere Hills Volcano: Causes
- On a destructive plate boundary.
- The volcano had erupted after a long period of dormancy so was unexpected.
Soufriere Hills Volcano: Effects
- Pyroclastic flow (ash, rock, gas) burned vegetation.
- 2/3 of the island covered in ash.
- Wildlife on the island disappeared.
- New land formed when Pyroclastic flow reached the sea.
- 60% of housing was destroyed.
- The only hospital was destroyed.
Soufriere Hills Volcano: Solutions
- Monserratt Volcano Observatory constructed to monitor volcanic activity.
- Tiltmeters to measure the size and the expansion of the volcano over time.
- Thermal Imaging to monitor whether areas of extreme heat are near the surface of the volcano.
- Gas Levels are measured (sulfur dioxide) 5 times a week.
- Lasers to measure the slightest change in the shape and size of the volcano.
- Satalites are used to monitor the changes in shape in the volcano
- Many of these are powered by Solar Panels.
- Remote Cameras take pictures regularly to show change.
- Hazard Map drawn to show danger and safe zones.
- International aid received (£55 million).
Globalisation: Nokia MNC
- Nokia wants factories to be closer to the consumer.
- They open factories where labour costs, building and tax is cheap.
- 2005 2.2 billion using mobile phones 2009 4 billion using mobile phones
- Brings new technology to the LEDC.
- Brings in new jobs for the locals.
- Environmental Damage.
- Higher paid jobs (R+D/HQ) with higher skill level to to the MEDCs because there is a higher level of education so more skilled workers and better communication technology.
- Most of the profits go back to the MEDC.
Globalisation: TATA Nano MNC
- Located in India.
- Parts are built all over the world (e.g. windscreen from France, Seatbelts from Sweden, body from India).
- A cheaper car for India where salary is low.
- This means lots of cars will be sold as demand is high and many don't own a car in India.
- Good for Tata business and Indian economy.
- Provides factory jobs for locals.
- Roads become clogged up.
Kuapa Kokoo, Ghana & Divine Chocolate: Fairtrade A
- Fairtrade ensures a fairer price for the coco beans from the farmers.
- Sustainable farming practices.
- Farmers have shares in the company, Divine Chocolate.
- Hand water pumps installed.
- More educated society, new schools developed.
- Healthier, so fewer diseases.
- Increased number of females at work and doing other jobs such as making soap.
- The produce is slightly more expensive for the consumer.