A mountain or hill, usually having a cuplike crater at the summit, formed around such a vent from the ash and lava expelled through it, e.g. Mount Vesuvius, Krakatoa, etc.
A volcano that erupts regularly, e.g. Etna (Italy), Karymsky Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia), etc.
A volcano which is inactive but not extinct, e.g. Mount Fujiyama, Japan; McKinley, Alaska.
A volcano that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again, because it no longer has lava supply, e.g. Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska.
A destructive mudflow on the slopes of a volcano.
A very hot mixture of volcanic debris that flows downhill at high speed.
Magma is molten rock. When it reaches the Earth’s surface it is called lava. When lava cools, it forms rock.
Effects produced directly by volcanic activity, e.g. lava flows, ash-flows, etc.
The result of primary effects, e.g. mud flows.
A conical hill produced by volcanic eruption of ash, cinders or lava.
Emmediate effects of an earthquake
-No clean water
-Communications are down
-Lack of ,medical aid
-Ports and roads are closed
-Spread of disease
-Gas supply affected
Long term effects of an earthquake
-Debts to other countries
-Recondstuction of buildings
A spot formed when lava breaks through the sides of volcano and starts growing.
A volcanic landform created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano.
The outlet for magma to escape.
The shaking and vibration on the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates.
Destructive/ convergent margin
The boundary of two plates which are moving towards each other.
Constructive/ divergent margin
Areas between two crustal plates that are moving away from each other, causing new crustal plates to form.
An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
A point, directly above the true centre of disturbance, from which the shock waves of an earthquake radiate.
The point of origin of an earthquake above epicenter.
A theory about the movement of the plates and the activity inside the Earth.
Transverse/ conservative margin
A plate margin where the movement of the plates is parallel to the margin.
Spain is the second most popular tourist destination in the world. Over 53 million people visit Spain each year bringing 33 million pounds each year. Spain joined the European Union in 1986. The major industrial areas are in northern cities as Zaragoza and Barcelona. Agriculture is important in some parts of Spain. In the Ebro valley and coastal areas there are high yields of citric fruits, olives and salad crops. Farming is less prosperous in inland areas. Central Spain has hot summers with only 450 mm of rain per year. The average temperatures in Madrid are 40C in summer and 5C in winter. Spain is mountainous country. Most of central Spain is a high plateau called the Meseta. Total population is 42.5 millions.
Other facts about Spain
-Spain and Portugal make up the Iberian Peninsula.
-Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean belong to Spain. Canary Islands are off the west coast of Africa belong to Spain.
-In 1492-1600's Spain was the most powerful country in Europe, because Columbus discovered America, Spanish people went over and conquered in Spain gained land, diamonds and gold.
-In 1936 there was a civil war in Spain. It was bad for the country as it split Spain up.
-King Juan Carlos rules Spain today.
-There are 17 regions in Spain.
-Galicia, Catalonia and the Basque country are different because they want an independence, they want to rule themselves and be identified as separate from others.
Other facts about Spain
Package holiday- holiday including everything (food, accommodation, tourist attractions).
The major attractions that draw people to visit Spain are:
Global Fashion Industry is a fashion industry, that effects worldwide. It produces many products including clothes, cosmetics, perfumes, shoes, accessories, handbags and hats. Being global means that it produces products in many countries, advertises and has worldwide marketing.
The majority of the manufacturing companies are in Asia. This is because most countries in Asia are one of the LEDC and so the labour will be a lot cheaper than manufacturing in European or American countries. Not only are the labour's cheap, the land, transportation, raw materials, buildings and equipment, taxes and government regulations are cheaper,too.
Advantages of Natural materials:
-Can only be grown in certain places
-Good forskin- allows your skin to breathe
Advantages of Synthetic (Manmade) materials:
-More hard wearing
-More properties (stretch, waterproof, more varieties)
-Made from oils chemicals
-Can be cheaper
The USA and the UK have the highest wages for the production of textiles as they are very economically developed meaning that they are richer than another countries and they have the minimum wage law.
China and Indonesia have the lowest wages as they are under developed and they don't have minimum wage law meaning that the companies can pay their workers as law as they want.
When a garment is produced there are many people from around the world who are involved in its production.
2. Factory worker
3. Factory manager
At each state of production there are costs involved which leads to the final price, however, those at the bottom or who are the first in the chain will receive the least amount of money.
The huge difference in wages leads to the globalization of the garment industry, because all the companies want to produce their products at the lowest cost possible, so they build their factories in the LEDCs to lower the labour cost and they have their headquarters in the MEDCs because usually it's their country and the MEDCs have better reputation so it would attract customers.
The winners in the globalization process are the retailers because they earn the most money. With each step in the production process, the seller earns more money. The losers are the farmers because they work really hard but earn very little money.
Subcontracting is when a factory has too much work so they give the work to another factory and pay them.
A geological structure which occurs undersea along the boundary of a tectonic plate.
A numeral value used to measure the intensity of an earthquake.
A numerical value used to measure energy contained in an earthquake.
Buildings constructed so as withstand different degrees of earthquake damage.
When people travel globally outside of their region and home country.
When people take holidays, short breaks and day trips in their own country.
Eco-fashion/ sustainable fashion
Making clothes taking into account the environment, the health of consumers and the working conditions of people in the fashion industry.
A Less Economically Developed Country has low levels of development based on economic indicators such as gross domestic product (the country's income).
A More Economically Developed Country has high levels of development based on economic indicators such as gross domestic product (the country's income).
A factory or workshop in the clothing where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions.
A system in which goods, capital and labour flow are freely between nations, without barriers which could hinder the trade process.
Chain of production
The steps that needed to be taken in order to transform raw materials into goods which can then be used by consumers, e.g. primary product- apple, the chain of production will turn it into an apple pie.
TNCs (Translational corporations)
Corporations which operate in more than one country or nation at a time and have become some of the most powerful economic and political entities in the world today, e.g. General Motors, Ford, Apple, Samsung, etc.
Fashion that is designed to be environmentally friendly. It is part of the larger trend of "ethical fashion".
Volcano case study
Name of volcano: Montserrat (Soufriere Hills Volcano)
Location: On the island Montserrat
When did it erupt? On August 6, 1997 at 14:36
What type of plate margin is it found near? Montserrat lies on a destructive plate boundary where the oceanic crust of the North American Plate is being subducted under the Caribbean Sea.
What came out of volcano? The volcano expelled ash, dust, magma. High pressure caused pyroclastic flow.
What was the extent of the immediate damage? A large eruption sent hot pyroclastic flows rushing down the slopes. The landscape was laid bare. Sadly lives were lost in the eruption. Activity has increased to the level that ash and pebbles are now falling on the far north of the island.
Volcano Case Study
What were the long-term effects? Homeless people, decrease of country's population, debts to other countries, harm to economy.
What are some of the things that can happen in an earthquake?
2. Building Fall
5. Auto accidents
What can be done to reduce the impact of an earthquake?
1. Aseismic buildings
2. The plan of actions in case of earthquake
3. Providing information before an earthquake starts.
4. Installing of warning systems