GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5

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Location of earthquakes and vocanoes: world divided into 7 plates. Two types of plate oceanic and continental. In the seperation of plates if where activity occurs as the earth is unstable here.

Destructive plate margins: plates move together. Two types : collision and subduction zones. Collision is where they hit head on and buckle going up forming a volcanoe. Subduction is when the oceanic goes under continental. Build up magma. pressure. Volcano.

Constructive Plate margins: plate move apart and magma fills the gap.

Conservative: two plate slide past each other causing pressure. Earthquake!

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Why live in hazardous areas?

  • Good physical and economic activities - climate and jobs
  • fertile soils - volcanic rock
  • mineral extraction - volcanic areas
  • opportunitty to geneerate geothermal energy - volcanic
  • development of tourism

Earthquakes: measured on Mercalli Scale, determines how much the earth is shaking and its likely effects and the Ricter Scale measure the energy on a scale of 1 to 10.

Effects: Primary = deaths, injury, damage to buildings, infraastructure

Secondary = fires, spread of disease, food, water, shelter, medical facilities

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Why do earthquakes effect areas in different ways?

  • distance to epicenter
  • type of land
  • time
  • how prepared an area is

Preparing For Earthquakes:

  • educate
  • drills
  • train fire services
  • stronger buildings - rubber shock absorbers
  • gas electricity etc in flexible pipes
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Volcanic eruptions produce:

  • lava flows
  • ash falls
  • materials
  • toxic gas
  • mudflows

How can they be predicted?

  • small tremors
  • bulging cracks in volcano
  • ground temperature increases
  • small ash eruptions
  • changes in gases
  • hazard zoning
  • educate
  • drills
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Colombian Earthquake Jan 1999

  • deaths
  • homes lost
  • injuries
  • water electricity cut off
  • roads destroyed
  • hospitals damaged
  • fleet of fire trucks destroyed
  • outbreaks of disease
  • Sent for aid from other countries
  • Effects so great because: poorly built buildings, unexpected, untrained, poor area, no water for days, homeless, industries destroyed
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MT ST HELENS 18 MAY 1980

  • dESTRUCTIVE PLATE MARGIN
  • monitoring gave a warning
  • landscape flattened
  • farmland lost but better long term fertile soils
  • forestry flattened replanted trees later
  • communications lost
  • flooding
  • fish died in lava flows
  • tourism brings money
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KOBE 7.2 ON RICTER SCALE JAN 1995

  • morning
  • 600 after shocks
  • 6000 deaths
  • 35000 injuries
  • homes destroyed
  • water, gas electricity disrupted
  • fires
  • high rise building demolished
  • jobs lost
  • more jobs made in rebuilding city

NOW:

hazard zoning, strong buildings, fire resostant, increased monitoring of earthquake.

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