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Growth in cities because:

  • rural - urban migration
  • healthcare improved
  • death rate fell
  • people live longer
  • reduced infant mortality

Features of town/city centers:

  • expensive land
  • high rise buildings
  • multifunctional buildings
  • traffic, congested
  • social places
  • few homes
  • little manufacturing
  • companies
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Edge of central area is inner city:

  • housing
  • old factories
  • brownfield sites
  • carparks
  • high rise flats

inner core - offices and department stores

core - bars restaurants

framework - offices and schools

inner city - car parks, housing, derelict sites

outside this it is cheaper land

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Zone of discard: rundown and decaying

Zone of Assimulation: busy sort after area

What affects transport in city centers?

  • increase in cars
  • narrow roaads
  • urban areas increased
  • increase in people
  • increase in huge lorries

Problems: Air pollution, traffic congestion, slower speed of travel, accidents to pedestrians in increased congestion, poor environment, slow public transport, parking

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managing Traffic:

  • computerised traffic lights - speed up
  • parking restrictions
  • one way systems
  • traffic pricing - congestion zone
  • pedestrian areas
  • buses and trams run on gas which reduces air pollution
  • ring roads - M25

Changes to travel methods:

  • Park and ride
  • cycleway networks
  • car sharing
  • bus lanes
  • better transport
  • increase car travel costs
  • school run alternatives
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Inner city problems

social = single parent families, ethnic and students, cant afford to move, lack of money skills, high levels of illness and disease, drugs, crime, poor policing

Economic = poverty, unemployment, low wages, low skilled work, lack of facilities

Environmental = pollution, lack of green open space, old decaying terraces

Shopping has moved away from the city center EG bluewater, taking trade from the city centers

Town centers : drugs, violence, drunkeness, night clubs, pubs restaurants, bars

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London Docklands:

  • area of decline 1980 dock closed no jobs
  • now high rise building , centers of commerce, flats, appartments
  • DLR link to london
  • marina
  • jobs
  • expensive
  • old residents have to move away due to wrong skilled jobs and high prices
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