Changing Urban Areas
- 90% of the population live in urban areas
- Liverpool and London are two urban areas that have different fortunes over the last 50 years
- Liverpool- Population declined sharply between 1961 and 2001 but slightly increased recently
- London- Population declined alittle before 1981 but since increased by 1.6 Million
- Population has declined in many northern industrial cities because of de-industrialisation.
- Economic- City was very dependant on the dock trade and manufacturing industry, both of which declined sharply in the 70's and 80's
- Social- In 2010 38% of working-age people have no formal qualifications. -10% higher than the national average
- Demographic- Young people left Liverpool to find work leaving behind an ageing, dependant population. Youth unemployment was 60% in 1991
- Political- Some would argue Liverpool was ignored, especially in the 1980s when it was almost left in a state of managed decline
Changing Urban Areas (Continued)
- Economic- Docks closed in 70's and 80's but these were only a small part of the economy which included, banking, tourism, buisness services and government jobs
- Social- It is percieved as a multicultrual, global city with an educated workforce attracting investors
- Demographic- Benefited from immigration of young people. 2011 37% of Londoners were born abroad and average age was 37
- Political- As London is a capital city it benefited from huge infrastructure investments like the M25, HS1 (high-speed railway to Europe), Dockland and 2012 Olympics
- Liverpool was shaken by globalisation, Ports declined as manufacturing moved abroad
- London benefited from globalisation, Financial centre benefited from global growth in stock markets.
Changing Rural Settlements
10% of the UK live in Rural Areas. These are countryside areas with
- Low Population Density
- Small settlements of under 10,000 people
- Most of the land is farmland, grassland or woodland
Rural areas have changed alot in the last 50 years
- Less isolated because of new roads and a rise in car ownership
- Large areas are protected National parks and areas of Natural Beauty
- Urban people visit Rural areas due to having more time
- Farming is a less important form of income. Tourism and leisure are more important
Changing Rural Settlements (Continued)
3 different types of rural settlements
- Remote Rural Communities- Found in upland rural areas like the Lake District, the pennines and Scottish Highlands. Hard to get to locations, poor transport links, depend on farming. Protected areas that limit development to take place. Too far from cities to be popular with tourists. Often have an ageing, declining population
- Retirement Communities- Attractive locations, located on edge of coasts/ edge of national parks. Retired people 'downsize' their home and move here when they retire. Most locations are accessible areas to towns. I.e- Devon, Cornwall. Stable but aged population.
- Communter Villages- As a result of counter-urbanisation- middle-class families started moving out of the city to the countryside to communter in. Families like the saftey and peace of the countryside, but still want to be close to the city and its services. They have a rising population
A Sustainable City
Key Features of a Sustainable City
- Resources and services in the city are accessible to all.
- Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars.
- Public transport is safe and reliable.Walking and cycling is safe.
- Areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable.
- Wherever possible, renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable resources.
- Waste is seen as a resource and is recycled wherever possible.
- New homes are energy efficient.
- There is access to affordable housing.
- Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues such as crime and security.
- Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all.
- Inward investment is made to the CBD.
Curitiba Case Study
The Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) System
Curitiba was the first Brazilian city to have dedicated bus lanes. The BRT system has 4 elements
- Direct line buses, which operates from key pick-up points
- Speedy buses which operate onthe 5 main routes into the city and have linked stops
- Inter-district buses, which koin up distrcts without crossing the city centre
- Feeder mini-buses which pick people up from residential areas.
It is also cheaper than a tube system and some employers subsidise their employers who use it