Israel's Water Conflict
Israel cosumes 500 billion litres more water than it natually recieves.
Annual population growth 1.5%
Many Palestinians live in areas once occupied by israel and isreal still claims most of this water - leaving little for the palestinians.
Israel accuses palestine of overpumping the water in Gaza and the west bank which could create a natural diaster of water shortages and seepage.
Nile Water Conflict
40% of Africains live along the nile.
the nile flows through 10 different countries
eypt in the past has benefited the most from the nile- it has been able to support 73 million people and develop it's irrigated farms
85% of the rivers flow originates from ethiopia
in the past ethiopia economy has lagged behind plans to invest in it's economy will involve using water from the nile
Sudan also hs plans to exploit the nile
this threatens eypts infrastructure and economy
Turkey's rainfall has regional variations which can lead to shortages.
The government embarked on a $32 billion project to become the "breadbasket" of the middle east.
the project involves daming the Euphrates and tigris rivers which provide Syria and Iraq with water
the project involves building 22 dams and 19 HEP planrs, providing 22% of turkey's electicity by 2015
many investors including the british gov have pulled out because of human rights concerns - flooding one of the worlds oldest towns and pushing 80,000 people out of their homes
Toshka Millennium Project
Is a major irrigation scheme by the eyptian government will provide irriation to areas away from the densly popuated nile valley
the profect aims to provide food, electricity and jobs for 16 million eyptians in new towns in the desert.
it will cost $70 billion however there are concerns that irrigated water will evapoured in the desert heat and/or become desalinised.
Water Aid - Small Scale
Water aid provides people with access to clean, safe water with hygiene education.
Water aid works closely with local communities to make sure the projects are maintained.
In Ethiopia water aid set up mobile toilets = keeps surroundings clean and provides work
In Uganda water aid provides education about the importance of clean water supply using pictures as a key tool
Rajastham - India
In rajastham india coca cola was accused of extracting so much water at a local bottling plant that the local agriculture has suffered.
Famers are forced to dig deeper wells or buy water
the prices charged by the french owned water compainies were to high for many local people
Many families took illegal action to siphon off water from the local supply
UK Water Privitisation
In 1972 the government in the UK considered establishing a national water grid
the drought in the mid 70's made this a popular idea but subsiquent wet years and privitisation of regional authorities ment the idea lost steam
in 2006 there was some momentum to privitise the water industry after some dry years however different parts of the water indusrty is owned by many different multi national coperations ect.
California has the lowest per capitia energy consumption rate in the USA
16% of the USA's oil reserves, 3% of the USA's gas reserves
Produces 5% of the USA total electcity but import more electricity than any other state
The privitisation of the energy market means that compainies are unwilling to invest in energy infrastucture as a result california suffered from blackouts in 2000-01
In 2003 - the state declared by 2010 20% of it's electricity must come from renewable sources and laws were introduced to make cuts to greenhouse gases and introduce a carbon market
Akon Lighting Africa
600 million Africans still don’t have access to electricity, particularly in rural areas.
Akon Lighting Africa seeks to provide a concrete response at grass roots level to Africa’s energy crisis and lay the foundations for future development. Launched in February 2014 this initiative aims to develop an innovative solar-powered solution that will provide African villages with access to a clean and affordable source of electricity.
• Electrification: street-lamps, solar micro-generators and household electric systems
✓ Direct jobs: A network of young people is employed to learn how to install and maintain solar solutions, and to acquire technical expertise.
✓ Indirect jobs: small businesses, cafes, agriculture, evening classes, night transport… with electricity, everything becomes possible. So that their initiative can become a benchmark, the founders of Akon Lighting Africa have started to carefully monitor their activities to quantify the number of indirect jobs created.
China's Energy Consumption
China's energy consumption is expected to rise rapidly by 2020 china is expected to have 140 million private cars due to chinas growing middle class.
Chinas the worlds largest consumer of coal it relays on coal for 70% of its electricity
16% of chinas energy production is HEP
The East Siberia Pacific Ocean pipeline was originally planned by Russia to route through an area where the last Amur leapords live on it's way to the Pacific from Siberia
But in July 2005 the route was changed to be less problematic
China and Japan were completing for access to russias oil
The Japenese gov finaced the pipe to be extended to them, Japan has no oil reserves of it's own
Russia promised to increase oil exports to china by train by 300,000 barrels a day
In nov/dec 2004 ukraine in it's "Orange Revolution" got rid of it's pro russian government in favour of a more eurocentric goverment.
a year later gazprom cut off ukraines supply after russia quadrupled the price and ukraines new gov refused to pay
In march 2008 Gazprom cut gas suppies to the ukraine over a dispute about debt at the time the ukraine was seeking to join NATO and the EU
Canada's Tar Sands
Canada's tar sand deposits cover an area larger than england
the oil reserves below the Albertas forests could be as high as 180 billion barrels
however it is a very expensive process it is only viable when oil costs over $30 a barrel
it takes 2-5 barrels of water to produce every barrel of oil
by 2030 tar sands could meet 16% N. Americas demand for oil
Stands for Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, its a intergovernmental organisation with the objective to ensure fair and stable prices etc.
It set oil production quotas for members in response to the economic climate
Why did the British Empire collapse?
Competition - Rise of the USA and soviet Russia buoyed by massive WW2 investment in industry
Nationalism - Ghandi in India, the Boers in S. Africa and so on. Britain had to contend with better organised nationalist political movement with an ageing infrastructure and outdated means of control.
The second world war - Decimated British industrial capacity with bombing
Massive loans from the USA and expenditure on war (defending the free world!) bankrupted Britain. There was just no money left to afford the means of control, yet not all colonies were given up
The need for reconstruction at home. London and many other major cities were in ruins with millions homeless. Money had to be spent at home.
The take-off model (Rostow, 1960) (Liberal)
Economic development is a linear, 5-stage process. Countries 'take-off' & develop when pre-conditions are met, such as transport infrastructure. Industrialisation follows, creating jobs, trade & consumers. Criticisms: many countries borrowed money & invested into projects to meet Rostow's pre-conditions yet failed to develop & instead ended in debt.
Dependency Theory (Frank, 1967) (Marxist)
The world is divided into North v South. The developed world keeps the rest of the world in a state of underdevelopment, so it can exploit cheap resources. Aid, debt & trade patterns continually reinforce the dependency. Criticisms: since the 1960s NICs & RICs have broken out of the North-South divide mould.
World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974) (Marxist)
The world is divided into core, semi-periphery & periphery. Semi-periphery nations are broadly equivalent to the NICs that developed in the 1970s. Wallerstein recognised that some countries could develop & gain power, showing that wealth & power were fluid not static. Criticisms: World Systems theory is more a description of the world than an explanation of it.
The UN General Assembly
The core institution of the UN each country represented there by their ambassador Discuss international issues to try to resolve conflict by political means One member one vote Decisions made by simple majority Debate issues such as international conflicts, disarmament, human rights, refugee issues etc Decisions are NOT legally binding but they have the weight of international opinion
The UN Security Council
•Under UN Charter the Security Council has the main responsibility to maintain international peace and security •USA, UK, France, China & Russia – 5 Permanent members of 15 nation council •10 others rotate on a 2 year cycle •The General Assembly make recommendations but the security council can direct nations to take action 1.It can apply sanctions 2.Send countries to The International Court 3.Send peace keeping troops
Created by 44 rich countries to help those in debt Intended to prevent poverty & so limit the spread of communism In 2009 has 185 members Not all members are equal The G20 have 70% of the votes The USA has 17% of votes as the biggest investor EU nations have 25% while BRICS have 9.7% Most of the poorest African nations have 1% between them IMF reflects US & EU interests Used £ to promote fight against communism But imposed conditions that led to LEDCs to have to cut health & education budgets so they could cut their debt