Geography Case Studies; Unit 2

WJEC SPEC B Geography case studies for unit 2. Also done unit 1 case studies if you have a look at my resources :)

Perfect for exam tomorrow! Good luck everyone! :) 

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  • Created by: Rhiannon
  • Created on: 12-06-11 13:27

Use of an Ecosystem

For an ecosystem you have studied name and locate the ecosystem, describe the main features of the ecosystem and explain how it is being used by different groups of people OR describe how it is being used by people and explain how thses uses are affecion both people and the enviroment

Location:

  • Amazon Rainforest, Brazil, South America


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Describe the main features of the ecosystem;

  • Equatorial Climate
  • Expensive wood from trees (e.g mahogany)
  • Minerals such as gold, iron and copper can be excavated
  • Many different species of animals, creatures and plants

(http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQB7JeHnnXOS0OCIMYZiWhVljRul5XqhI0PJnNb1dzxl3M3o4JM)

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Describe how it is being used by different groups of people;

  • Logging for expensive wood that can be exported
  • Catle ranching in large areas of the forest for cattle meat
  • Mining for minerals
  • Farming; shifting cultivation
  • Rubber Tapping 
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Explain how these uses affect both people and the envrionment;

  • All 4 mean destroying habitats; loss of wildlife; environmentalists angry.
  • Logging is illegal usually; government have to pay for dammage. 
  • Logging also puts pressure on the loggers to produce more wood to be exported with less trees
  • Cattle ranching also puts pressure on local farmers due to competition
  • Mining affects the indigenous as it destroys their homes
  • Traditional farming methods mean moving farmlands constantly; pressure on nomads to export their products
  • Soil erosion can be caused
  • Ruber tapping is sustainable, so nobody affected negatively
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Weather system; Depression

Name and locate a depression you have studied, describe how it formed and explain how it affected the area and different groups of people.

Name and location:

  • The Gale of the century, Western Europe, Focus = France
  • (December 1999)
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Describe how it was formed:

  • Depressions are an area of low pressure, meaning unsettled weather
  • It formed over the Atlantic Ocean

1.Warm, moist, tropical air from the south met cold, heavy air from the north they did not mix easily and the warm air was forced rise over the cold air.

2.This formed a warm air front

3.The cold air undercuts the warm air to for the cold air front

4.This causes frontal rain and cloud.

5.The cold front is faster than the warm and caches up to the warm to form an occluded front.

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Explain how it affected the area and different groups of people;

  • Winds tore up wooded areas, ruined forests and destroyed habitats
  • The equivalent of £46 million worth of damages to historic buildings in Paris (e.g the two spires damaged on the top of Notre Dame Cathedral)
  • Many people were killed (44 in France) due to collapsing buildings
  • Attractions such as Euro Disney were closed
  • 1.5 millions people were cut of an electric supply; 700,000 homes were without telephones due to wind destroying power and communication lines
  • Students were unable to go back to school in January due to £100,000 million worth of damage = lack of education and catch up
  • Train lines became unsafe to travel on due to fallen trees on lines
  • Tourists = ruined holidays.
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Weather System; Anti-Cyclone

Name and locate an anti-cyclone you have studied, describe how it formed and explain how it affected the area and different groups of people.

Location:

  • Western Europe, Focus=UK
  • (August 2003)
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Describe how it was formed;

  • Summer anti-cyclones are formed in the mid-latitudes. Calm and settled weather. Areas of high pressure.

1. Low pressure belt moves north from the equator as the position of the Sun moves north.

2. Rising low pressure air is created by maximum heating og the Sun overhead

3. As warm air moves north it cools and sinks. Some warm air returns to the equator.

4.As a result of high-pressure, an anti-cyclone is created at the surface.

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Explain how it affected the area and different groups of people;

Negatives:

  • Heat stroke due to too much exposure to the sun, meaning dehydration. Can affect elderly and children mainly.
  • Hospitals struggle to cope with too many patients suffering heat related illness.
  • Hose-pipe ban due to lack of water.
  • People 'skive' work and school to go out in hot weather. Work Places then struggle, and a loss of education increases.
  • Wild fires start due to dry vegetation. 
  • Young people jump in water (cliff diving) and drown.
  • Drought.
  • Asthma suffered struggle with poor air quality.
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Positives:

  • Sunshine increases people's well being
  • Quicker ripening crops
  • Tourist numbers increase in UK
  • Economic advantages for ice cream sellers, supermarkets etc...
  • Outside events can be arranged.
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Extreme Weather; Drought

For a named example of a drought you have studied, describe how it affected different groups of people and explain how it is being managed.

Location:

  • Niger, North-Central Africa, within the Tropic of Cancer belt.
  • Northern Niger is part of the Sahara Desert where there is virtually no rainfall.
  • The Sahel runs through Southern Niger.
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(Briefly explain the causes)

  • Lasted 13 months from 2004-2006
  • The Sahel has suffered drought for the majority of the past 30 years.
  • Drought is declared when there is below average rainfall for 2 years.
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Describe how it affected different groups of people;

  • Over 3 million people affected
  • Thousands died due to starvation and diseases, as the Sahel ecosystem can only cope with one or two drought years; any longer and it breaks down due to lack of water.
  • Southern Provinces (Maradi and Zinder) were the worst affected
  • Desertification (cracking up; water resistant) due to lack of nutrients and being unable to infiltrate; affects arable farmers.
  • Soil Erosion
  • Any crops left were eaten by the infestation of locusts
  • Little food (especially large families)
  • The population had grown meaning more pressure on resources and food
  • Mismanagement of land causes more desertification
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Explain how they managed the drought;

  • Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world
  • Aid was sent from all over the world (food stocks for 3.5 million people)
  • Drought resistant animals were kept (e.g goats and camels)
  • Drought resistant crops also kept
  • Trees were built between crops to add nutrients to the soil
  • Water was stored more efficiently 
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Floods

Name and locate a flood you have studied, describe what caused the flood and explain the effects on people and the environment OR name and locate a flood you have studied, describe what causes the flood and explain how people have managed and recovered from it.

Location; 

  • Pakistan, Asia
  • Indus River flows through Pakistan
  • Flows north to south into Arabian Sea
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Describe the causes;

  • Mid-July there was a high amount of rainfall which cause the Indus River to rise and cause floods.
  • Areas in the North received more than 3 times there annual rainfall within 36 hours
  • Sediment was cause from erosion due to the heavy rainfall, meaning the river became a less efficient drainage basin.
  • the levees also built along the banks caused sediment and were a sort of barrier for the water to flow past.
  • Deforestation in recent years also meant the natural flood defence was being replaced for farm land.
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Explain how the Floods affected different groups of people;

  • Villages were completely destroyed to rubble.
  • People dying due to disease ridden water.
  • Increase in illness and deaths.
  • 10 million children died out of 20 million deaths.
  • Child labour increased, due to people looking for children to rebuild their homes.
  • Farmers suffered as a third of the country was flooded; crops ruined.
  • The Global economy was affected; countries such as the UK rely on Pakistan for rice, textiles, leather etc..; Prices increased 
  • Some countries like China benefited from this as their business sales increased.
  • 1.8 millions homes were damaged or completely washed away
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How have the floods been managed;

  • Government and landlord politicians have apparently not helped and not managed standard flood procedures correctly
  • Islamic charities gave aid.
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Floods

Name and locate a flood you have studied, describe what caused the flood and explain the effects on people and the environment OR name and locate a flood you have studied, describe what causes the flood and explain how people have managed and recovered from it.

Location; 

  • Pakistan, Asia
  • Indus River flows through Pakistan
  • Flows north to south into Arabian Sea
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Describe the causes;

  • Mid-July there was a high amount of rainfall which cause the Indus River to rise and cause floods.
  • Areas in the North received more than 3 times there annual rainfall within 36 hours
  • Sediment was cause from erosion due to the heavy rainfall, meaning the river became a less efficient drainage basin.
  • the levees also built along the banks caused sediment and were a sort of barrier for the water to flow past.
  • Deforestation in recent years also meant the natural flood defence was being replaced for farm land.
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Explain how the Floods affected different groups of people;

  • Villages were completely destroyed to rubble.
  • People dying due to disease ridden water.
  • Increase in illness and deaths.
  • 10 million children died out of 20 million deaths.
  • Child labour increased, due to people looking for children to rebuild their homes.
  • Farmers suffered as a third of the country was flooded; crops ruined.
  • The Global economy was affected; countries such as the UK rely on Pakistan for rice, textiles, leather etc..; Prices increased 
  • Some countries like China benefited from this as their business sales increased.
  • 1.8 millions homes were damaged or completely washed away
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How have the floods been managed;

  • Government and landlord politicians have apparently not helped and not managed standard flood procedures correctly
  • Islamic charities gave aid.
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A River Landform

Name and locate a landform by water action that attracts people, describe how it forms and how they are used by people and explain how it brings advantages and disadvantages to an area.

Name and locate;

  • Gulfoss Waterfall, Southern Iceland, which lies in the upper courses of the River Huita.
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  • 1. River meets a band of softer, less resistant rock.
  • 2. The underlying softer rock is eroded away more quickly.
  • 3. Process of erosion such as abrasion cause undercutting.
  • 4. The more resistant rock is left unsupported and overhangs
  • 5. Eventually the more resistant rock collapses onto the river bed.
  • 6. The rock causes abrasion of the river bed.
  • 7. Hydraulic action also helps to create a deep plunge pool.
  • 8. The process is repeated and the waterfall retreats upstream.
  • 9. A steep sided river valley is created called a gorge.

(http://getrevising.co.uk/themes/base/cimages/medium.pad/documents/waterfall_diagram/Waterfall.png)

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How do people use it (positives and negatives);

  • It is a honeypot site with more than 300,000 visitors per year
  • Brings revenue to the area and increases employment rates
  • Locals spend money on locals services creating a multiplier effect
  • Activities such as day tours, swimming and nature observing means congestion increases as more tourists come.
  • Litter and soil erosion increases
  • Employment is seasonal, and usually poorly paid.
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A Coastal Landform

Name and locate a coastal landform you have studied using a sketch describe how it was created and explain how it is being used by people.

Name and locate;

  • 'Old Harry', a stack which is part of a cave, arch, stack and stump formation located in Dorset between Swanage and Studland
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  • 1. Old Harry was once a chalk headland  that stretched from Purbeck to the Isle-of-Wright, along the Dorset coast.
  • 2. Lines of weakness called faults developed into the chalk headland.
  • 3. The processes of abrasion and hydraulic action erode the soft chalk to form a  fault line in the cave.
  • 4. The cave is widened and deepened from the force of the waves.
  • 5. The sea cuts through the cave to form an arch.
  • 6. The sea erodes the base of the arch to widen the gap and weaken the base.
  • 7. As a result the roof of the arch becomes too heavy and collapses.
  • 8. Part of the former headland (cliff) is now isolated as a stack.
  • 9. Over time the stack is eroded from the sea, undercutting occurs and it collapses.
  • 10. A stump remains where the stack stood.

(http://getrevising.co.uk/themes/base/cimages/medium.pad/documents/diagram_of_old_harry/OLD%20HARRY.png)

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Explain how it is being used;

  • It is a honeypot site that receives many thousands of visitors each year.
  • Popular for walkers and hikers due to its position on the Dorset coastline.
  • People who want to participate in water-sports and boat trips come to the area.

*Extra; How does this affect the environment and people;

  • Visitors stay in nearby hotels and B&B's, bringing revenue.
  • Also creates indirect and direct job sources, although they can be low paid and seasonal.
  • Increase in visitors could mean litter problems, overcrowding, congestion and high pressure on services and the area.
  • Areas surrounding will also experience similar affects.
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Coastal Management Scheme

Name a coastal management scheme you have studied, describe the scheme and explain why it was necessary for different groups of people.

Locate;

  • Minehead, South West of England, Somerset near the Bristol coast.
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Describe the scheme;

  • Raised the sea wall, making it curved and placing rock armour and groynes at the base of the wall to prevent erosion and longshore drift.


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Explain;

  • Tourists were pleased as it became a more accessible beach, especially for those in wheelchairs and it was a nicer place to enjoy
  • The manager of a local holiday resort, Butlins, needed the business and tourists.
  • Local builders got more work, and building the sea wall created a lot of jobs (yet they were only short term).
  • Some people believed nature should be left to its own course, as there was only a 1 in 100 chance of a severe storm that was cause major disruption.
  • Some saw it as a waste of money.
  • It was disruptive when the sea wall was being built for residents.
  • Many people moved for better jobs due to the influx of people getting seasonal jobs, so less business for shopkeepers in winter.
  • House prices rose due to people buying holiday homes.
  • Tourist workers at beaches further down found that the sand that was deposited on their beach went down sufficiently after the changes, meaning less revenue and tourists.
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Comments

Joe

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very detailed notes

samuel livingston

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have you made any or know of any revision cards for unit 3 and problem solving, I would very much appreciate it. Thank you :)

francesca allen

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thank you :-)

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