low pressure system (depression) hurricane Katrina
WHAT: A hurricane struck, reaching speeds of 200kph and reached category 5. Created storm surge after.
WHERE: Formed above Atlantic Ocean but struck the worse at New Orleans, South coast of USA, on the gulf of Mexico
WHEN: 23rd August 2005
WHO: People of Orlean
WHY: Because of warm air rising when hits cold air forms thunderstorm cluster, and intensify of evaporation and condensation, then spins.
- Orlean Mayor evacuated most people before being hit by it.
- More than 1400 people died
- 300000 houses destroyed.
- $300 billion damage
- 30 off shore oil platforms sunk so increase in fuel price
- Some coastal habitats destroyed
- Farmland destroyed
- Main bridge collapsed
- About 250000 evacuated Louisiana Duperdome
- Authorities and volunteers rescued over 500000 people
- US goverment spent $800m on rebuilding flood defences
- $34 billion for re-building of houses and schools
High pressure system (anticyclone) Ethiopia
WHY: Rainy seasons were too little, too late and too erratic for water sources ro be replenished, crops to grow and grazing to be re-established. Climate change
- Poor coutry so does not habe dams and wells to cope with drought well
- Water sources dried up
- Animals died
- Crops failed and so people's health deteriated from malnutrition
- Schools closed.
- Farmers become poor and many lost jobs
- Fights start within community
- Herdmen migrate to other countries for water for their animals
- Country makes no money through no food being exported
- Aid given from other coutries including water and food that was then distributed at shelters
- Emergency centres provided vaccines to fight diseases
- New breeding stock provided for farms
- Development of drought-resistant strains of crops
- Development of low cost water supplies
- Impose water supply restrictions
WHAT: 57% of Bangladesh was flooded by the 3 major rivers, The Gagnes, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna.
WHERE: coast of bay of Bangladesh - South Asia, North East India
WHEN: September 1998
- 70% of total land area was less than 1m above sea level
- People encouraged water to flood their fields of crops
- Monsoon climate
- Himalayas provided snow melt due to climate change
- Suffers from cyclones
- Increase in surface run off due to deforestation in the Himalayas due to increase in population which carries some silt in which ends up in river so river carries less water
- 1000 people killed
- milllions made homeless
- many buildings and roads crops and livestock destroyed
- cost country almost $1billion
- Diseases spread
- water shortage
- river polluted
- education damaged
- loss of income
STRATEGIES/SOLUTIONS: some places evacuated but not all due to loss of control of goverment. Oxfam aid including food, clean water, shelter, medical care and rescue teams. Aid given for rebuilding. better flood warning systems put in. houses built on stilts. children taught how to swim. Some engineering on sections of the river, eg embankments and levees but is a poor country so has little money. dams and flood shelters built. river channels dredged so more discharge able to be held in river.
River landform- Bangladesh Delta
WHAT: River delta
WHO: Between 125 and 143 million people live on the delta
WHY: Formed by sediment from the river being deposited at the mouth of the river when its velocity is greatly reduced and it meets the sea. The sediment blocks its own route and then the river finds a new way out to sea forming many distributaries across the delta. Vegetation grows as the back of the delta which stabilises the silt.
- Jute, tea and rice are grown here
- Fishing is a major activity for food source for people within the area and for earning a living
- The delta is prone to cyclones and flooding.
- Climate change could effect everyone living around the delta because it would increase in snow melt and so would increase in river width and amount of flooding which would result in loss of homes.
- Important gas reserves have been discovered here but do have not been explored because it would damage the natural environment.
managed coastal area and coastal landform - Holder
WHAT: Protection of the Holderness coastline from erosion from wave attack.
WHERE: The East coast of England and is 61km long, from chalk headland in Flamberough through Bridlington, Hornsea, Mappletown, Withernsea, Easington to Hull and Spurn Head (the 11km spit at the Humber estuary).
The spit forms a sweeping curve which continues the line of the coast. The sand which forms the spit has been transported along the Holderness Coast by longshore drift. The energy in the waves transporting the material reduces where the North Sea meets the Humber Estuary. As a result the material is deposited. This process is known as deposition
WHEN: before 1990 decided to do something about it all
- One of Englands fastest eroding coastlines - 2m per year. because made of boulder clay.
- fertile lannd, for agriculture, many jobs made from farming
- Hornsea Mere is the largest natural lake in yorkshire with many different species of plants & birds.
- Easington gas terminal is main one of UK.
- Caravan park at Hornsea
EFFECTS AND STRATEGIES/SOLUTIONS:
- People loosing houses and farms because of landslides, house prices decreasing, no insurance.
- Groynes put up at hornsea mere.
- Sea wall made higher and rip rap put in at Withernsea.
- 2m spent on rock armour for protecting the cliff at mappletown which had catastrophic effects on farmlands further south and 12m per year the cliff retreated.
- Boulders in front of easington cliff
- Steal revetments and stone gabions put in in Hornsea to protect Caravan park
an economic activity that damaged the environment-
WHAT: oil rig explodes, 4.9 million barrels leaked into sea.
WHERE: Gulf of Mexico
WHEN: Built in 2001, happened on 20th April 2012
WHY: Failed to follow safety procedures.
- damage done at Louisana, Alabama, Mississipi and Florida as well as Mexico
- 11 people killed
- oil begins wahing ashore damaging, gulf of mexicos habitats and species
- oil slick nera Luisiana shore line
- overall bad effect on environment
- bad effect on economy of USA because of loss of tourism, moeny for oil workers etc etc
- loss of species, 3000 birds, 64 dolphins and 500 sea turtles and habitats especially fish stocks which has impact on economy
- ecosystems will need decades to recover (wetlands)
- 6 months off for moratorium for oil workers
- 8,500000 claims made, 44000 for lost income.
- 190 miles of floating boom preventing oil reaching shorelines
- skimmers being used to skate over the water and bring up any oil
- underwater technology to prevent the oil rising to the surface of the water
- dispersant chemicals being sprayed from ships to help breakdown of the oil