Geography case studies


Poland to UK international migration

Push factors from Poland:                        

  • High unemployment- around 19%
  • Low wages- one third of the average EU wage 

Pull factors to the UK:

  • Ease of migration- Uk allowed unlimited migration from the EU.
  • More work and higher wages- wages were higher in the UK and a big demand for tradesman

Impacts in Poland:

  • Shortage of workers in Poland
  • The money sent home boosted Polands economy
  • Young people left Poland leading to a aging population

Impacts in the UK:

  • Boosted the UK's economy
  • People in the UK were unhappy about the number of immigrants
  • Polish workers pay taxes supporting the aging population
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The UK's ageing population

Causes of the aging population:

  • Advances in medicine and improved living standards
  • A baby boom in 1940's and 1960's- those born in these periods are heading for retirement
  • Since the 1970's the ammount of babies being born has fallen 

Problems caused by the ageing population:

  • More elderly people are living in povert- the working population isnt big enough to pay decent pensions.
  • the NHS is under pressure because older people need more medical care than younger people.

Strategies to influence population change:

  • Encouraging women to have more children- to supply a larger working population in the future
  • encourage immmigration of young people to the UK- means a larger working force to pay taxes for pensions

Stratagies to cope with the problems of an ageing populations:

  • Raise the retirement age- people will have to work for longer meaning more people paying taxes
  • Encourage people to take out private pensions- government gives tax breaks for some types of private pensions.
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China's one child policy

1949- government encouage to have children:

  • Population of 540 million before hand and population were encouraged to have more children to help produce more food and build a stronger army
  • By 1970 population increased to 830 million and resources couldnt cope- large famine and people had no access to water and power.

Late, long and few policy in 1970:

  • Aimed to reduce the population growth by encourging women to have children later, leave loner gaps between kids and have fewer children in total
  • The policy worked well and meant resources werent being used up as quickly and less waste was being produced

One child Policy in 1979:

  • Couples were given longer maternity pay, better housing and free education, but those who have more than one child dont get any benefits and were fined their previous benefits
  • The population hasnt been growing as fast and the policy prevented 400 million births
  • Couples are allowed to have a seond child if: the first child is a girl, they live in a rural area or child has a disability.
  • However it can casue problem like the gender imbalance and the 4-2-1 problem.
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