Poland to UK international migration
Push factors from Poland:
- High unemployment- around 19%
- Low wages- one third of the average EU wage
Pull factors to the UK:
- Ease of migration- Uk allowed unlimited migration from the EU.
- More work and higher wages- wages were higher in the UK and a big demand for tradesman
Impacts in Poland:
- Shortage of workers in Poland
- The money sent home boosted Polands economy
- Young people left Poland leading to a aging population
Impacts in the UK:
- Boosted the UK's economy
- People in the UK were unhappy about the number of immigrants
- Polish workers pay taxes supporting the aging population
The UK's ageing population
Causes of the aging population:
- Advances in medicine and improved living standards
- A baby boom in 1940's and 1960's- those born in these periods are heading for retirement
- Since the 1970's the ammount of babies being born has fallen
Problems caused by the ageing population:
- More elderly people are living in povert- the working population isnt big enough to pay decent pensions.
- the NHS is under pressure because older people need more medical care than younger people.
Strategies to influence population change:
- Encouraging women to have more children- to supply a larger working population in the future
- encourage immmigration of young people to the UK- means a larger working force to pay taxes for pensions
Stratagies to cope with the problems of an ageing populations:
- Raise the retirement age- people will have to work for longer meaning more people paying taxes
- Encourage people to take out private pensions- government gives tax breaks for some types of private pensions.
China's one child policy
1949- government encouage to have children:
- Population of 540 million before hand and population were encouraged to have more children to help produce more food and build a stronger army
- By 1970 population increased to 830 million and resources couldnt cope- large famine and people had no access to water and power.
Late, long and few policy in 1970:
- Aimed to reduce the population growth by encourging women to have children later, leave loner gaps between kids and have fewer children in total
- The policy worked well and meant resources werent being used up as quickly and less waste was being produced
One child Policy in 1979:
- Couples were given longer maternity pay, better housing and free education, but those who have more than one child dont get any benefits and were fined their previous benefits
- The population hasnt been growing as fast and the policy prevented 400 million births
- Couples are allowed to have a seond child if: the first child is a girl, they live in a rural area or child has a disability.
- However it can casue problem like the gender imbalance and the 4-2-1 problem.