CASE STUDY = Nightingale Estate, Hackeny
BEFORE the WHO developed it:
• Crime - people had no money to buy luxuries
• Low life expectancy - the pollution caused bad health from factory fumes and cars
• Low literacy rates - bad education as a result of no money from the government
• High unemployment rates - no jobs available, no qualifications
• Low public transport/No cycle lanes - people don’t travel as there’s nowhere to go
• Vandalism - nothing better to do
• No green space • Litter/Dirty - laziness
AFTER the WHO transformed it:
• Medical centre - so people didnt have to travel far when ill
• Environmentally friendly - have lots more green space and parks for children available
• Local transport - more public transport was add and cycle lanes
• Creating more jobs - low unemployment rate
• Improving schools - better education and higher literacy rates
• Litter schemes improved the areas appearance and vandalism was removed
CASE STUDY = R & R, Birmingham
Redevelopment and Regeneration stragegies are being improved by adding more basic needs to the community, an example is Birmingham:
- Hospitals - hospitals have now a more enviornmentally friendly enviornment by adding plants and have been more designed more suitbale for OAPS and young people.
- Brindleyplace - now recycles more, more efficient, the travel is better on the enviornment.
- National Indoor Arena - top 10 businessess cover a large amount of square foot
- New street station - over 140,000 people use it now (over double than before). Its fast, created more jobs and helps economic growth.
- International Convention centre - another floor was added, new arena. £200,00 spent of decoration.
- Mailbox - added text or print on them making them more colourful. Signs are now more decorative.
- Bullring Shopping Centre - 1 of the most photographed landmark, holds more events, more shops available.
This is a positive as more jobs are available, less unemployment, higher population in the area (people will stay and more people will come), more enviornmentally friendly. More recemendation.
CASE STUDY = Cambridge Traffic Managment
As a result of lots of businesses, traffic was very busy in Cambridge. The aim was to reduce traffic by adding:
- one way systems
- park and ride schemes
- cycle lanes
- visable signs
- traffic calming
- Introducing new technology - bollards allowing certain vechiles through
By introducing new ways of managing traffic the streets are made safer and reduces congestion. Results in few accidents and people will get to places on time.
A guided busway was opened dedicated to only certain types of buses. Opened in 2009 costing £116 million. The aim was to provide high quality public transport as an alternative to car use.
CASE STUDY = Curitiba Traffic Management
The city of Curitiba is in Brazil. Brazil is a LEDC. Curitiba has 2 million people living there.
They have a bus rapid transport system where the buses run on dedicated bus lanes making sure buses are not slowed down by other traffic.
80% of commuters (people who travel into the city for work) use the bus. This had led to 30 million less car trips each year therefor reducing pollution and traffic congestion.
This means that business dont lose as much money by paying workers to be stuck in traffic jams.
The buses will have less stops which makes the journey more direct and a lot faster.
The buses run on diesel and biofuel which cause less pollution.
It is a limited and reliable system and uses smart card payment and loading bays are used to allow passengers to board the bus easily and quickly. This means that buses will be faster and easier to get.
CASE STUDY = Kibera - Self Scheme
Although Shanty Towns are illegal the government have realised that they cannot remove them. The people are so poor that it is difficult to build homes and charge them rent money.
One solution is in building self help schemes.
The government puts in basic services such as clean water and sewage and provides building materials such as breezeblocks.
The families then get together and help build the homes (some being trained and plumbers, others electricians etc.).
This means that the buildings are relatively cheap, hygenic and creates good community spirit.
These are known in Brazil as perifera.
CASE STUDY = Lodon Docklands
Lodon Docklands Development Cooperation (LDDC) in 1981 - 1998.
- To regenerate the area economically (encourage businesses and therefore enmployment)
- To improve the enviornment of the Docklands
- To improve the living conditions for people living there
- 160,00 trees were planted and 130,000 acres of open space created (Enviornmental)
- The council have created 20,000 new homes and 10,000 new jobs (Economic)
- New facilities have been developed - shopping centres, schools, indoor sports (Social)
- New houses were too expensive for local people (Social)
- New people didnt mix with locals - causing a breakdown of the community (Social)
- Most jobs went to people living outside the area - locals didnt have the qualifications (Economic)
CASE STUDY = Kibera - Shanty Town
Kibera is a Shanty Town located in Nairobi (city) in Kenya (country).
- Housing - Not stable, no electricity, no water, small, dangerous, prone to floods and landfall.
- Disease - No sewers, no water, unhygenic, close together resulting in diseases spreading fast, high infant mortality (young death), no working toilets.
- Pollution - traffic, inefficient engines, bad quality cars, rubbish is left anywhere, dirty water, factories pump sewage into river (they use the river to drink and clean in).
- Crime - death, drugs, gangs, guns.
Earn between £0.50 to £1.50 and day.
Public toilets can be used up to 1,000 times per day (each toilet)
Chloera and Typhoid are the 2 main diseases from the river.
1 in 5 children don't see the age of 5 (20%)
Average wage is £0.35p a day (45 shillings)
Area is prone to flooding.
1 and 1/2 square miles = 1 million people
8% of woman recieve an education
A Shanty Town is an area poorly built, low cost and often illegal housing. Found in and around cities in LEDC's. They are rundown, dirty, cramped, poor quality and have a high population.
Shanty Towns have grown because there are more run down areas available such as railways, unused lands, wastelands and places no one will live e.g. prone to flooding or landslips. They use whatever land available and because of the increase of shanty towns the amount of population has increased. Since 1980 they have expanded 34% and rising to 940,000 people.
In one year intend to add:
- a sewage system - keep it hygenic
- local water tap
- medical supplies and a weekly nurse/doctor visit - to keep people healthy and care for them
- building materials
In two years intend to add:
- a local factory - paid jobs employing over 140 people
- training for a teacher - to education the children in the area
Traffic Management Schemes
- Park and ride - park car on outskirts and get the bus into centre (save money).
- Pedestrianised areas - dont allow traffic only people. No accidents, safer, cleaner, less pollution.
- Permit Holder - designated areas that cars can park in. Needs a permit or cannot park. Less cars as parking is restricted. People are not allowed to just park anywhere.
- Vehicle exclusion zones - only certain vehicles can go into the areas e.g. not allowed down narrow roads (especially large lorries).
- Car pooling - people are encouraged to share their cars. Results in less pollution.
- Traffic Calming (speed bumbs) - makes traffic go slower, results in less accidents.
- Bus rapid transport - only allows certain buses in the area.