Geography B (Theory Higher) Notes

Revision notes on the exam for Thursday 14th June - WJEC/GCSE

Dockland notes from

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  • Created by: SBDL
  • Created on: 09-06-12 16:38


  • Mid July - August 1998
  • 68% covered in water (2/3 country covered in water) - aid had to be transported via aircraft making it harder for people to access foodstuff; indirect deaths of starvation 
  • Himayalas snow melted due to Global Warming (human influence factors included) those causing a river discharge where surface-run off was increased due to trees being cut down.
  • 1000+ died - direct deaths caused by strong currents of the flood
  • disaeases such as chlorea, dstenty and dioreahea spread (indirect deaths)
  • Recieved 1800-2600mm of rain, the Uk on average recieves 600m, 4X
  • 7m homes destoryed leaving over 25m people homeless
  • physical landscape; low lying country; 70% land less than 1m above sea, 80% floodplain
  • 20% descrease in production - economy
  • positive: silt deposition creates new land such as Ganges Delta from Bay of Benegal
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Aral Sea

  • It is located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
  • The two rivers that flow into the Aral Sea are the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya.
  • It has been drying up because the Soviet Union used it for irrigation under the Soviet Union Irrigation Project.
  • In 2007, it was 10% of it's original size and it was splitting into three separate lakes of which only one is suitable for fishing.
  • The water is heavily polluted because of weapon testing, industrial projects, pesticides and fertiliser run-off.
  • There are problems with wind blown salt because of the dried up seabed. This has lead to some public health problems because of salt and dust laden air. 
  • Goats are now being grazed on land that was previously covered by the sea.
  • Stakeholders: Former Soviet Government-They came up with the ambitious irrigation scheme for fruit and cotton farming 'white gold'  heavily dependant on it
  • Fishing community-Fishing used to employ 60,000 people but it has now collapsed due to the decrease in water and the increase in salinity. 
  • Local residents-They are now plagued with health problems, the drinking water is polluted and there are high infant mortality rates as 10% die in the first year.


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...Aral Sea continued

  • Scientists-They are worried about the loss of biodiversity-only 160 out of 310 bird species previously here survive
  • International economists-This is because 10million people may be forced to migrate.
  • Currently there is a restoration programme underway. A dam was built to make the little Aral Sea with a loan from the World Bank.
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London Docklands

19th century, London's port was one of the busiest in the world end of the 1950s it was in significant decline docks derelict and abandoned

•In the 1980s in an effort to reverse the process of inner city decline the UK government set up Urban Development Corporations (known as UDCs).

•regenerate inner city areas with large amounts of derelict and unused land and reclaim land, convert old buildings and improve infrastructure through the investment of government money

•attracted private sector investment through offering companies reduced taxes and other benefits and in doing so they promoted industrial, residential and community developments.

•London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was set up in 1981.

 Why did the London Docks go into decline?  

1. An increase in ship size meant they found it difficult to come down the river as far as the Isle of Dogs where the river wasn't as deep. (the position of the docks moved further downstream to Tilbury);  

2. The decline of portside industries and manufacturing

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Effects of Regeneration

Environmental Regeneration
- network of pedestrian and cycle routes through the area and creation of pedestrian bridges
- Water based Ecology Park and London's first bird sanctuary at East India Dock Basin - one of 17 conservation areas set up
- planting of 200,000 trees;
- the area has now received many awards for architecture, conservation and landscaping

Economic Regeneration
- unemployment had fallen from 14% to 7.4 with a doubling in employment and numbers of businesses;
- opening of the Docklands Light Railway in 1987 - now carrying 35,000 passengers a week;
- £7.7 billion in private
secotr investment
- 2,700 businesses trading
- major new roads including link to the M11
- Building of the City Airport in the former Royal Docks (500,000+ passengers a year)
- attraction of financial and high-tech firms
- TV studios and newspapers such as The Guardian now have offices in the prestigious Canary Wharf business complex.

Social Changes
- £10 million spent on improvement council and housing association homes
- a total of 22,000 new homes built (mainly private ownership with
approx 19% for rent)
- Large new shopping
centre at Canary Wharf with over 30 shops

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How successful was the London Docklands Redevelopm

- more trade for local
- cheaper rents here for large companies yet still the benefit of only being 10 minutes from central London
- a wide range of economic, environmental and social benefits (see above) - including 22,000 news housing units and 1000s of new jobs.
- greatly improved accessibility in and out of docklands
- addressed the once failing land, housing and commercial property markets in the area.

-- many locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new expensive houses / flats (still a lack of low-cost housing in the area)
- despite an increase in jobs with new businesses coming in, most required skills that the old
dockers did not have;
- reduction in community spirit that the old Docklands had - with the 'yuppie' newcomers not mixing with the

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Mexico to USA migration

  • There is a 2000km border between USA and Mexico.
  • 1 million + Mexicans migrate to the USA every year.
  • US Border Patrol guard the border and try to prevent illegal immigrants
  • 850,000 were caught in 1995 and were deported

Push Factors

  • Poor medical facilities - 1800 per doctors
  • Low paid jobs - (GNP = $3750)
  • Adult literacy rates 55% - poor education prospects
  • Life expectancy 72 yrs and 40% Unemployed

Pull Factors

  • Excellent medical facilities - 400 per doctor
  • Well paid jobs - GNP = $24,750) and Life expectancy 76 yrs
  • Adult literacy rates 99% - good education prospects
  • Many jobs available for low paid workers such as Mexicans
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What are the impacts on the USA

  • Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons
  • Mexicans are seen as a drain on the USA economy
  • Migrant workers keep wages low which affects Americans - Mexican migrants benefit the
  • They cause problems in cities due cultural and racial issues
  • Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music
  • The incidents of TB has been increasing greatly due to the increased migration

What are the impacts on Mexico?

  • The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people
  • Many men emigrate leaving a majority of women who have trouble finding marriage partners
  • Young people tend to migrate leaving the old and the very young – brain drain
  • Legal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to Mexico
  • Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants
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Many new migrants to cities in LEDCs cannot afford housing. They are forced to build temporary accommodation in spontaneous settlements. crap materials such as wood and metal sheeting •not have services such as sanitation, water or electricity. •very overcrowded

  • located on Brazil's south-east coast one of Brazil's largest settlements with a population 11.7 million people
  • Natural Increase is one reason for its growth (this is when the birth rate is higher than the death rate)
  • urbanization - caused by rural to urban migration from Brazil's rural areas to Rio de Janeiro, 65% of urban growth is a result of migration - caused by a variety of push and pull factors..
  • Millions forced to construct their own homes from scrap materials such as wood, corrugated iron and metals.
  • these areas of temporary accommodation are known as favelas in Brazil. 
  • The conditions associated with favelas are very poor. Often families have to share one tap, there is no sewerage provision, disease is common and many people are unemployed.
  • Favelas are located on the edge of most major Brazilian cities, the only available land to build on within the city limits.Industry is located on the edge of the cities –many people need jobs therefore they locate close to factories. 40 or 50 km from the city centre (on the edge of the city), along main roads and up very steep hillsides.
  • Rocinha is the largest favela in Brazil. It is located in the southern zone of the city. It is built on a steep hillside overlooking the city, just one kilometer from the beach. It is home to between 60,000 to 150,000 people
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Rocina continued

The authorities in Rio de Janeiro have set up self-help schemes; provide local residents with the materials needs to construct permanent accommodation (breeze blocks and cement)The local residents provide the labour - money saved can be spent on providing basic amenities such as electricity andwater.Compared to simple shanty towns or slums, Rocinha has a better developed infrastructure and hundreds of businesses such as banks, drug stores, bus lines, cable television.

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