Geography

  • Erosional features
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caves, arches, stacks and stumps

---> A stump is formed by the the action of the sea and weathering.

---> The sea erodes a crack with hydraulic action. This is when water hits the cliff compressing air in cracks. As the water retreats the pressure is released breaking off pieces of rock.

---> This makes the crack bigger forming a cave. It if is a headland, caves will form on either side. Eventually the backs of the caves meet and an arch is formed. In time the arch will collapse forming a stack.

---> This is due to undercutting of the sea. Corrasion is what happens, which is when rocks in the sea are thrown against the cliff breaking off pieces of the cliff.

---> The arch becomes wider at the bottom and is unable to support the weight above. Eventually the arch is pulled down by gravity.

---> Weathering is also active on the cliff face and further weakens the cliff. Through time the sea erodes the bottom of the stack and it collapses to leave a stump, which is coveed by the sea at high tide.

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Headland and bays

  • only occur on coastlines where soft and hard rocks are found at right angles to the sea.
  • the soft rock erodes more quickly than the hard rock forming bays
  • the hard rock is more resistant and sticks out as headlands
  • there should also be reference to the processes of erosion
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