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  • Created by: chelsea
  • Created on: 05-06-13 09:25

Demographic Transition Model

The demographic transition model describes how the population of a country changes over time. It plots changes in birth and death rates and shows that countries through five stages of population.

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Explanation of model

Stage 1

·         A period of high birth rate and high death rate, both with fluctuate.

·         Reasons for high birth rate include:

o   Limited birth control

o   High infant mortality rate-encourages birth of children

o   Children are a future source of income

o   Some religions encourage large families

·         Reasons for high death rate:

o   High incidence of disease

o   Poor nutrition and famine

o   Poor levels of hygiene

o   Underdeveloped/inadequate health services

·         Life expectancy is low

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Explanation of model

Stage 2

·         A period of high birth rate but falling death rate

·         This means the population expands rapidly

·         The birth rate is high due to no contraception

·         Reasons for falling death rate:

o   Improved public health

o   Cleaner water supplies

o   Lower child mortality

o   Improved medical provision

·         Life expectancy has increased but still more young people than older people

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Explanation of model

Stage 3

·         A period of falling birth rate and continual falling death rate

·         Population growth slows down, but the population is still increasing

·         Reasons for falling birth rate:

o   Changing socioeconomic conditions

o   Greater access of education for women

o   Preferences for smaller families

o   Increased personal wealth

o   Rise in materialism

o   Lower infant mortality rate

o   Compulsory schooling so children are expensive

o   Family planning systems

·         Death rate continues to fall due to more medical improvements

·         More people living to be older

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Explanation of model

Stage 4

·         A period of low birth rate and low death rate, both which fluctuate

·         Population growth is still small and fertility continues to fall

·         Life expectancy is high, more people are living to be older

·         People come more materialistic (less money for children)

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Explanation of model

Stage 5

·         A period during with the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate

·         Causes populating decline

·         Reasons for low birth rate:

o   Rise in individualism, linked to more women working

o   Greater financial independence of women

o   Rise in the concept of childlessness

o   People have dependent elderly relatives

o   Increase in non-traditional lifestyles (same sex relationships)

o   Concern about population increase and future resources

·         More older people than younger people

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