Geography- urbanisation

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Why people move from rural areas to cities

In poorer countries

  • Shortage of services (education, access to water, power)
  • More jobs in urban areas due to a larger workforce and better infrastructure
  • Subsistence farmers (rural)- poor harvest and crop failures result in no income and a risk of starvation

In richer countries

  • In the 18th and 19th century machinary began to replace farm labour in rural areas and jobs were created in new factories in urban areas- People moved from farms to towns for work
  • In 20th century people left run down city areas and moved to the countyside but are now moving back due to redevelopment
  • Better healthcare and higher birth rate in cities
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Four main parts of a city

Central Business District (CBD)

Found right in the centre of the city. Commercial centre of shops and offices

The Suburbs

Housing areas found towards the edge of the city

The Inner City

Found around the CBD. It has a mixture of poor quality housing and older industrial buildings

The Rural-Urban Fringe

The part right at the edge of the city where there are urban and rural land uses

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Solutions to the problems in cities within richer

How housing shortages are tackled in cities

  • Urban renewal schemes encourage investment in ew housing, services and employment in derelict areas
  • New Towns are built to house overspill population
  • Relocation incentives aqre used to encourage people living in large council houses who dont need them to move out of urban areas to free up houses.

Efforts to revitalise CBD's

  • Pedestrianising areas to make them safer and nicer for shoppers
  • Improving access with better public transport links and better care parking
  •  Convertiing derelict warehouses and docks into new shops restaurants and museums
  • Improving pulic areas such as parks and squares
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Solutions to the problems in cities within richer

Problems with more cars on the roads              

  • More air pollution damages health                    
  • More road accidents                                                                                 
  • Air pollution damages buildings
  • More traffic jams and congestion                                                                                                                                             

Solutions to reduce the problems

  •  Improve public transport to encourage more people to use it instead of cars
  • Increase care parking charges to discourage care use
  • bus priority lanes
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Solutions to the problems in cities within richer

Reasons for ethnic segregation

  • People prefer to live close to others with the same background and religion
  • People live near to services that are important to their culture eg place of worship
  •  People from the same ethnic background are often restricted in where they can live in the same way 

Support Strategies

  • Make sure everyone can access information
  •  Improving communication
  •  Providing interpretators at services
  • Making sure there are suitable services for the different cultures
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Ways to improve squater settlements

Self- Help schemes

The government and local people work together to improve life in the settlement. The government supply building materials so they can build themselves homes with basic services

Site and Service schemes

People pay a small amount of rent for a site and can borrow money to buy building materials to buy and imrove a house on their plot. Rent money is used to provide basic services to the area.

Local Authority schemes

Funded by the local government and improve temportary accomodation built by residents and improve life for the inhabitants e.g Rio de Janiro

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Squatter Settlement case study- Rio de Janeiro

  • It has 600 squatter settlements housing more than 1 million people 
  • The Favela-Bairro project started in 1995 and has been very successful 
  • The project involves 253000 people in 73 settlements and is being extended.                                  
  •  Social improvements:
  • daycare and after school care to look after children whilst parents work 
  • Adult education classes
  • Services to help drug and alcohol addiction and domestic violence                                  
  • Economic Improvements
  • Reisdents can apply to legally own their properties
  • Training schemes to help people find new jobs, learn new skills and earn more money    
  • Environmental improvements
  • Replacing wooden buildings for brick buildings
  • Widening and paving streets to allow easier access
  • Provision of basic services
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Urbanisation- Environmental issues in poorer count

  • Waste disposal problems
  • Lots of waste is produced which damages health and the environment especially if its toxic and not disposed of properly 
  • Poorer countries cant afford to disose of it safely 
  • Poorer countries dont have the infrastructure needed
  • More air pollution
  • This is from buring fuel, vehicle fumes and factories
  • It can cause acid rain which damages buildings and vegetation
  • Can cause health problems such as bronchitis and headaches
  • Destroys the o-zone layer which protects us from UV rays
  • More water pollution
  • Water carries pollutants into rivers and streams
  • Kills fish
  • Can build up in food chains and poison humans 
  • Can spread diseases
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Urbanisation case study -China and push/pull facto

Push factors from rural areas

  • Fewer jobs as fewer workers are needed due to more machinary
  • Lower wages and higher poverty
  • Shortage of services such as education and healthcare

Pull factors in urban areas

  • More jobs as there are more industries
  • Higher wages and lower poverty
  • Better quaslity services and better access
  • Positive impact in urban areas- more workers and in the demand for for services helps to increase the trade and industry
  • Negative impact  in urban areas- increasing population causes more pollution and environmental damage
  • Positive impact in rural areas- People who have left send monwy home to thier families which helps to increase income and help to avoid poverty
  • Negative impact in rural areas- It is usually the aging population who are left behind and have no one to help look after them.
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impacts of counter-urbanisation in richer countrie

  • Rural impacts
  • Increased demand for houses increases prices so less people can afford it
  • Commuters prefer to use services closer to work so local ones shut down. This means local people who dont have transport are isolated
  • People leave commuter villages during the day so they are empty during the day

Urban impacts

  • Inner city areas with high crime and pollution become more empty and disused as people move away making them more unpopular
  • Commuters prefer to shop and work on the outskirts of the city so services and shops in the city centre lose customers and close
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How the government manage counter-urbanisation

In rural areas

  • Policies to provide more housing for local people to stop commuters and second home buyers
  • Investing in services- providing extra money for services in commuter villages so they dont close down

In urban areas

  • Redeveloping urban areas to make them more attractive and encourage people to move back
  • Regenerating shopping areas by pedistrianising them and having better car parks.
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Making cities more sustainable

Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it - prevents air and water pollution

Conserving natural environments and historic buildings

Building on brownfield sites (derelict areas that have previously been used) -for new buildings to stop green space being used up so the space is avaliable in the future

 Building carbon neutral homes -  generate as much energy as they use. More homes can bee provided without damaging the environment or causing more pollution

Creating an efficient public transport system -  fewer cars on the roads so pollution is reduced.

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Sustainable cities- Curitiba(brazil)

Reducing car use

  • good bus system
  • the same cheap fare is paid for all journeys - benefits poorest resisdents living on  outskirt of the city
  • lots of bike paths in the city
  • bus system and bike paths being popular means car use is 25% lower

Lots of open spaces and conserved natural environments

  • Green space increased
  • over 1000 parks and natural areas
  •  residents planted 1.5 million trees 

Good recycling schemes

  • 70% of rubbish recycled
  • residents in poorer areas where streets are too narrow for rubbish collection are gven food and bus tickets for bringing their recycling to collection centre
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Urban Development

Social needs 

  • More housing- can be built on old industrial fields ( brownfield sites)
  • More room for social activities- such as parks and places for things like golf
  • Better transport systems and routes

Economic needs

  • More jobs- business parks and out of town shopping centres built on undeveloped land

Environmental needs

  • More waste disposal systems
  • More green spaces

Case study- glasgow (Scotland)

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Retail services

2 types of consumer goods: 

1- high order/comparison goods- only brought occasionally and are more expensive eg furniture 

2- low order/ convenience goods- they are brought frquently are low prices e.g milk

threshold population- minimum population needed to support a shop. Shops selling high order goods have a higher threshold

sphere of influence- the area that people come from to visit a shop. Shops selling high order goods have a bigger sphere of influence as people will travel further as a one off purchase. The distance people will traven is the range

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Changing retail services

Factors which causes change in the way we shop in the UK

Changes to transport

  • Car ownership has increased so people can travel further- less rural conveinience stores and more shopping centres

Changing market forces

  • Change in supply and demand for goods
  • People want a larger range of goods at lower prices
  • Smaller specialist shops cant meet this demand like larger chains can so go out of business

Case study= South Yorkshire

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