# Geography Paper 3

- Created by: Morgan.K
- Created on: 10-06-18 12:35

## Analysing Graphs (T.E.A.M)

**T - Trend**

- Does the graph have a positive or negative correlation?
- What is the graph telling you? (when water increases, the number of umberalls brought also increases).

**E - Evidence**

- State some numbers that you can link to your point.
- How can you prove that your trend is correct?

**A - Analyse**

- Are there any anomalies?
- What could have caused these anomalies?

**M - Manipulate**

- If you were to carry on the investigation, what do you think would happen?
- Could you improve the investigation? How would your improvements benefit the investigation?

## Data

**Primary Data - **

Data collected by yourself

**Secondary Data - **

Data collected by someone else.

**Nominal Data - **

Numbers that appear as a category (1=yes 2=no)

**Ordinal Data - **

Numbers that have an order (Countries put in order of population size)

**Interval Data - **

When the difference between each number is equal. (the difference between 1*c and 2*c is the same as 3*C and 4*C)

**Ratio Data - **

A relationship between two sets of data (number of people per doctor)

## Sampling

**Random Sampling - **

Selecting things in a random order. (In a line of bottles, you pick random ones)

**Systematic Sampling - **

Selecting data in a certain order. (in a line of bottles, you chose the 10th one each time.)

**Stratified Sampling - **

Where systematic or random samples are taken from a specific group. (in a production of bottles, you always chose bottles from the 5th machine)

## Quantitative Data or Qualitative Data

**Quantitative - **

Data that consists of numbers and factual information that is good evidence. (amount of litter or velocity of a river)

**Qualitative - **

Data that is opinion based (questionnaires, Photos and maps)

## Population Pyramids

They show how many people of different ages are living in an area.

LIC - very large at the bottom, very small at the top.

HIC - smaller at the bottom, lager at the top.

## Histograms

They are similar to bar charts, but show frequency (earthquakes)

## Line Graphs

They show how data changes over time (amount of rainfall each year)

## Bar Charts

can be used to compare groups of data.

## Barline Graphs

can be used to compare two sets of data. (climate)

## Pie Charts

They help show percentages, making it easy to compare.

## Scatter Graphs

They show a relationship between two sets of data.

A strong correlation means that the points are very close together

A weak correlation means that the points are not close together

No correlation means that the points are scattered and do not travel in one direction.

## Manipulating Data

**Extrapolate - **

Values are plotted using a line of best fit outside the data range.

**Interpolate -**

Values are plotted using a line f best fit inside the data range.

## Chloropleth Maps

They show interval data as colours. Darker shades usually reflect higher numbers, lighter shades usually reflect lower numbers.

Population Density can be shown in the form of choropleth maps.

## Isoline Maps

They join up areas or values that are equal. The areas that are equal are joined using a line. Atmospheric pressure is usually shown as an isoline graph.

## Dot Maps

Dot maps show information as dots. They are often used to show population distribution.

## Desire Lines and Flow Lines

They help show movement from one place to another.

Flow lines show the exact path of movement

desire lines show the general direction of movement

Thick lines show high amounts of movement. Thin lines show low amounts of movement.

Trade and migration is usually shown on a flow/Desire map

## Proportional Symbol maps

They are added to a map to show the differences between places. The state symbol will either appear larger or smaller depending on how something changes.

They could be used to show the number of wind farms in a country.

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