- Created by: LunaShomeiRose
- Created on: 12-01-19 14:16
Ecosystem = natural environment where biotic elements (Flora, fauna, bacteria) are linked with abiotic elements (climate, soil, water).
Climate (temp/rain) = which species can survive
Soil type = nutrients for diff. Plants
Water amount = which plants/animals can be supported
Biotic parts have complex relationship with abiotic - changing one = change in other:
Waste from dead plants/animals decomposes into soil by bacteria, giving plants nutrients to support animals. Those plants/animals die and cycle repeats.
The food chain:
Shows how living things get food. Energy/nutrients passed from one organism to next. Producer provides basic source of food which consumers then feed on.
producer (plants = energy) - organism (feed on plants - consumer (feeds on organisms)
The food web:
Includes all connections between producers/consumers in ecosystem. Shows how interconnected all different organisms are.
Found near Equator. Climate = hot/humid + many different species found here. high biodiversity (range in animals/plants).
Biotic depend on abiotic - change in one = change in other
Wet (over 2,000mm rain/year)
Warm (average 24 degrees)
Atmosphere - hot / humid (wet)
Climate = consistent all year. No seasons.
Not very fertile (thin layer of fertile soil found at surface where dead leaves decompose)
Red - rich in iron
Heavy rainfall - nutrients quickly washed out soil
Plants and animals:
warm/ wet climate = perfect conditions for plant growth
Wide range of plant species supports manydiff. animals/birds/insects.
Species have adapted to rainforest conditions (eg trees /plants have shallow-reaching roots to absorb nutrients from thin fertile layer in soil near surface
The following adaptations allow plants to survive in the conditions of the rainforest.
Lianas - woody vines that have roots in ground but climb up trees to reach sunlight. Their leaves/ flowers grow in canopy
Tree trunks - tall/thin so trees reach sunlight. Bark = smooth so water flows down to roots easily
Drip tips - plants have leaves with pointy tips so water runs off quickly without damaging/ breaking them
Buttress roots - large roots have ridges - create large surface area - helps support large trees
Epiphytes - plants which live on high branches in canopy. Get nutrients from air/water, not from soil.
Sloth - camouflage + moves slow - hard for predators to spot
Spider monkey - long/strong limbs - help climb through rainforest trees.
Flying frog - fully webbed hands/feet + loose skin that stretches between its limbs - glide from plant to plant.
Toucan - long/large bill - reach/cut fruit from branches too weak to support weight
Threats to the tropical rainforest
Farming - large areas are cleared (deforestation) for agriculture (crops/animals)
Logging - trees cut for valuable wood like mahogany
Mining - trees cut down for mines for natural resources (gold/copper/iron), mercury gets into river and pollutes it
Roads - destruction to make roads so farmers, loggers and miners have access
No vegetation - no sheltered from rain - rain washes nutrients away - cycle stops (no nutrients replaced from dead leaves) - becomes unfertile - roots don't hold soil together so easily eroded
Plants/animals = closely connected through food web so deforestation reduces biodiversity (no plants - no animals)
Fewer trees/plants, due to deforestation = less co2 removed from atmosphere (plants absorb co2 through photosynthesis) - contributes to global warming - climate change
Mines, farms and roads ( which caused deforestation) - led to economic development (more money - pay of dept / invested in development)