What is Urbanisation and why do we do it?
Urbanisation - The increase in the percentage ofthe population living in urban areas (Cities) from rural areas (Countryside)
Urbanisation is caused because people are moving from rural areas in search of jobs, opportunities to improve their lives and create a better future for their children.
- People move into cities to seek economic opportunities.
- In rural areas, often on small family farms, it is difficult to improve one's standard of living beyond basic sustenance.
- Farm living is dependent on unpredictable environmental conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence, survival becomes extremely problematic.
Where is urbanisation occuring?
Urbanisation occurs most commonly in:
- America (North+South)
- Parts of Africa
Over 80% of these countries' populations live in Urban areas
Urbanisation has occurred at different times for different continents and at different rates (speeds). The most urbanised places on planet Earth are the most economically developed, with North America, Europe and Oceania all displaying high percentages of urbanisation and all starting with high levels after 1950 (all over 50%) These have all continued to urbanise, but rates have slowed down as these areas approach their peak for urbanisation.
Push & Pull factors
Push Factor - Factors (Reasons) that would drive you away from an area
- economic migration - moving to find work or follow a particular career path
- social migration - moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends
- political migration - moving to escape political persecution or war
- environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding
Pull Factors- The factors that would attract someone to a certain area
- higher employment
- more wealth
- better services
- good climate
In 79 AD, the Romans built a fort near a crossing point on the River Medlock.By the 13th Century, the Romans had left and Manchester was a market town.
In the 14th Century, Flemish weavers settled in Manchester and started the tradition of making wool and linen cloth, which people were doing in their homesBy 1760, Manchester's population was about 17,000. Then 2 things happened:
- The Industrial Revolution came along , and machines were invented to spinning fibres, which was a job usually done by hand
- Cotton fibre was imported to Liverpool, then sent to Manchester by boat on the river
Many people then poured in from rural areas because the factories were a great job oppurtunity. By 1853, Manchester became a city, doe to its population of 300,000+ residents.
Manchester spread further and further as a result of the rising population.
Peak Population: 766,000 in 1931
Kibera - Slums
- In Kenya, 5 km from capital
- Only 20% of Kibera has electricity (although it is illegal)
- Unhygenic drinking water
- AIDS and other diseases spread easily
- Very small houses
- New, cheap housing for families
- Charities give building materials
- Better water system and electricity supplies
The Future of the City
Sustainability - Can be carried on into the future without harming people's quality of life, or the economy, or the environment
The sustainability of an area can be increased with:
- Energy Efficiency
- Reducing Waste
- Better community facilities
- Job oppurtunities
- Ban Cars - offer cheap, clean public transport, making walkways more pleasant
- Use more space for vegetation, to soak up CO2
Masdar City, in Abu Dhabi, is a conceptual eco-city which aims to be the first of it's kind. It is maximising it's sustainability by:
- Using thousands of solar panels to power the entire city - as opposed to fossil fuel
- Make walkways narrower, to create shade. This makes Masdar 15°C cooler than the rest of Abu Dhabi.
- Everything can be walked too, and if not, residents can use autonomous "PODs"
- Allow higher population density, and maximise the space avaliable
- Minimise waste by recycling waste water.
- Water is provided by desalinated sea water
Desalinating - Removing dissolved salts from sea water