Geography - Coasts

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  • Created by: tolulah
  • Created on: 06-12-15 10:28

Coastal Areas

coastal area is an area located near a coastline which border the sea. It it where the land interacts with the sea. Coastal landscapes differ because of rock type, management, erosion and weathering

Uses of coastal areas include:

  • tourism
  • ecosystems
  • fishing
  • transport
  • trading

Threats towards coastal areas include:

  • rising sea levels
  • pollution
  • erosion
  • tropical storms
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Wave Characteristics

Wave crest - highest point of wave, formed when water risis

Trough - lowest point of wave, formed when water falls

Wave length - distance between two successive crests/troughs

Wave height - distance between crest and trough

Swash - waves breaking and travelling up beach carrying load in prevailing wind direction

Backwash - waves returning to sea with load  taking the shortest possible route (gravity)

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Constructive Waves

Constructive

The effects of a low wave (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/903cb89096e5824a7b28b5172135498d5bc2a193.gif)

  • They are created in calm weather and are less powerful than destructive waves
  • Have a stronger swash than backwash, so they deposit material and build up beach
  • Less frequent than destructive waves (6-9 per minute)
  • Low with long wavelength - they roll onto the beach
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Destructive Waves

Destructive Waves

The effects of a high wave (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/8d4062a22a73715eb6abc6e21c88bbbba5eebf8c.gif)

  • They are created from big, strong waves when the wind is powerful and has been blowing for a long time
  • They occur when wave energy is high and the wave has travelled over a long fetch
  • They have a stronger backwash than swash, so they erode material and transport it away from beach 
  • They are more frequent that constructive wabs, and break 10-15 per minute
  • They are tall with a short wavelength and have a greater distance to fall when they break
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Why waves differ

Waves are formed by friction between the wind and sea. The type and size of waves are determined by three factors:

  • Strength of wind

The stronger the wind, the bigger the waves

  • Wind duration

The shorter time the wind blows for, the small the waves

  • Fetch (distance wind travels)

The longer the fetch. the bigger the waves

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