Geography Case Studies

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Denmark - Energy Secure Country

Denmark was 99% reliant on other countries for their energy.

They now have new technologies and policies: Biomass, high gas prices, cheap public transport and high tax on fuel. They now have 1/4 of the energy use per person of USA

20% of their energy is supplied by wind turbines, reducing cost considerably. 

It provides the world with 40% of wind turbines - providing employment opportunities. 

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China - Energy Insecurity

Coal reserves in North and West but demand is in South and East. Little attrcation to investors. Costs alot of money to transport that coal.

Difficult to explore in the sea due to international waters disputes. 

Hard to use renewables because they are not connected to national grid - good for rural villages. 16% of their enrgy is from the HEP dams

Increasing economy makes it hard to meet demad (doubled in size in 8 years)                        Only has 12% of energy imported from overseas - not much variety - lack of security if one source runs out. 70% of its own energy - self dependent - cheaper.      

Solutions to insecurity - Invest in ports in Pakistan  

                                       Upgrade airstrip in the South China Sea - naval

                                       Turn coal into clean gas - increase air quality.

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OPEC Countries

Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Lybia, Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela and Ecuador. 

They hold over 71% of world's oil supplies and they gove each memeber of OPEC a quota of how much oil to produce. They protect the price of oil, avoiding price fluctuations. 

The Oil Crisis - 1973

Americans gave weapons to Isreal in the Isreal/Arab war. All arab countries cut off their supply to America and other countries/companies raised their prices because America was so in demand. Usa then became more energy mix concious. 

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Russa - Using gas as a weapon - pathways.

The two countries also failed to agree on a price Russia would pay Ukraine for gas transit to Europe. Jan 2006 and Jan 2009 - Russia cut off gas supplies to Ukraine over an unpaid bill.

In Jan 09 Russia supplied a quarter of Europe's gas and 80% of this was transported through Ukraine. Some, like Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia, are almost completely dependent on supplies via Ukraine and so were left with major shortages, during a very cold spell in Europe. Whereas after 2006, countries were reminded to store some energy in case of an emergency. 

Moving pathways to become more enrgy secure - 

Baltic Sea - 80% through Germany and 15% through Ukraine

Black Sea- Avoids Ukraine completely - Goes through black sea then into eastern Europe

Nabucco- Through Turkey and Bulgaria

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Exploitation of vulnerable areas

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Fracking in the UK

1/3 of Uk's energy demand met by gas

It will support economy if we search for shale gas (74000 jobs)

Without fracking - ships bring in oil to UK - not energy secure. By 2025 we expect to be importing close to 70% of the gas we consume, assuming we do not develop shale.

+ves - economy enhanced, cheaper gas, more ernergy secure

-ves - money goes to large TNCs, earth tremours, health risks, water contamination


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Impacts of rising oil prices

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Potential Hotspots

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India Energy Security

56% of India's rural population is without electricity and there's not enough energy being developed. - reducing rural area's chance of development.

Increasing demand from cities - 2x supply needed to meet demand - not much infrastructure to transport. However, energu consumption is predicted to increase by 4x in the next 20 years

WIND TURBINES - farmers who have turbines on land dont have to pay tax towards government which attracts investment. However, out of all of the renewable enery technologies, wind turbines arent reliable and expensive. However, it allows rural people to accsess energy.

BIOMASS- rural people using cow dung to cook and heat things - a by product of their own earnings (rural farming). They used to use wore wood which took time to collect and caused health problems. Bioass uses local skills and rescources and encourages them to farm cattle which provides more for economy - milk - more time for education and skills - women get a better quality of life. 

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