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Lulworth Cove, Norfolk

Discordant Coastline

  • formed through sea erosion
  • several layers of rock
  • Sea cuts a crack in the rock and erodes the underlying limestone, which is resistant
  • The gap opens up as the sea cannot erode the limestone, only soft (less resistant) rock
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Old Harry Rocks, Dorset Coastline

Old Harry is a Chalk Stack

  • Stands out on the headline due to the soft, easily eroded sand either side of it
  • The stack is resistant, so does not erode easily
  • The waves are refracted as the approach the coast and bend aroud the headland to attack it from the sides, casing at first a cave, then an arch and finally a stack
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Holderness Coast

Norfolk Coastline

Reason for protection

  • Severely threatened by erosion
  • Mappleton, crucial to the local economy, is located on the coastline
  • Farming and agriculture is common due to the fertile soils
  • Nearby, the Humber Estuary is busy with shipping
  • Lots of wildlfe
  • Erodes at rate of 2m a year - 2 million tonnes of material a year
  • Cliffs on the coast made of soft boulder clay, not resistant to erosion

Measure taken for protection

  • In 1991, two rock groynes wer built and a rock revetment
  • However, futher South this makes erosion higher, as the material is being taken away and not being replaced.
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One Child Policy, China, 1979

In 1950, the pop. change in China was 1.9% each year. By 1970, the pop. was 970 million, which was unsustainable. The Chinese leader, Deng Xiaoping introduced the One-Child policy 

  • Food supply was increased, better healthcare, more education, better living standards
  • Resulted in more resources for child development
  • Maintained steady labour rate and less unemployment
  • Heavy punishments for thoses who did not follow the policy, people fined half their wages
  • Children had no cousins or siblings, so were very unsociable
  • Babies abandoned by parents as they only had one chance to have their dream child
  • Gender inbalance as boys were preferred to girls // girls abandoned more often

Is it sustainable? Yes enviromentally, because it reduced pollution as the population was smaller. No socially, because babies had no siblings or cousins. Yes economically, because the government no longer had to provide so much food, education and healthcare etc

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North/South Divide


  • Family in need of employment in the central business district (CBD) as the wages are higher
  • Raise a family
  • Lack of services in the North
  • Safer, as there are less natural hazards
  • Transport links


  • More wealth and maybe looking for financial stability
  • Tranquil and peaceful

The consequences of the North/South divide are that the businesses in the North have to close as everyone is moving to the South.

Cities like London have an increased population due to the amount of migrants coming in either from the North or internationally. This means there is less employment and less healthcare. Ageing population in the North

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Mexico to USA

Push factors: Asylum seeker looking for a better life in peace and away from war; if there is a huge rise in the levels of tax you need to get away from; religious purposes; diseases or dictatorsip.

Pull factors: If you need a more well paid job and/or to raise a family; services eg healthcare and education; flourishing in the promised land that is America.

Consequences: The impacts on Mexico are that the country loses its highly  skilled men as they try to cross the border, hereby damaging the country's economy. The impacts in the USA are that they recieve new cultures and new people, who take the jobs American civilians do not want, boosting the USA's economy. However, the USA also becmes overpopulated, leading to rises in crime, racism and unemployment. The government has to react by planning for the future.

Management: USA has strict border guards and policies, wih heavy fines if found guilty.

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Newham, Stratford, E. London

Before the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, this part of London was deprived and looked down upon. It had high levels of crime, ethnic diversity and pollution.

The urban change ocurred because London had been chosen to host the Olympics. This change provided over 9,000 new affordable homes, services became more accessible and improved transportation links. Westfields, a huge shopping centre was also built, providing 12,000 jobs.

Social impacts: 

14,800 new homes including the athletes village. //Public facilities also built. //3 coach and car parks built. //Increased tourism

Economic impacts: £12 bn given to the area. // West Ham Utd have since brought the Olympic stadium. // TV and marketing has brought about a further £560 million. //The cost of running the games was £1.5 billion.

Environmental impacts: Produced 3.4 billion tonnes of CO2, // noise pollution, // pollution from transport. //Animal habitats destroyed

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Meadowhall, Sheffield

  • Built in 1991 on the site of an old steelworks factory
  • Cost £250 billion to build but is now valued at £1.3 billion. It is the size of 27 football pitches, has 270 retailers and employs 7,000 people 
  • Centre invented the revolutionary online shopping


In the neighbouring town, small businesses had to close down as Meadowhall provided a more comfortable and accessible way of shopping. 953 shops had to close down in Rotherham. This has also led to unemployment in Rotherham.


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Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland. 14th April 201

Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland. 14th April 2010

Causes: Iceland is formed on part of the mid atlantic ridge and on top of the divergent N. Amerian and Eurasian plate boundary. //They move apart due to convection currents beneath the earth's surface. As they move apart, a hole begins to appear, and lava plugs this hole.

Consequences: Highest flight disruption since WWII, with 107,000 flights being cancelled at a loss of £1.1 billion and 10 million passengers stranded. //Anticylonic weather led to electric storms and flooding.// 150m thick ice cap melted in Iceland.// 20 farms destroyed by flooding in Iceland.

Management: Masks given out to population due to toxic gases in the air.// Farmers given a place to store their livestock.// 800 people evacuated in S. Iceland.// Warnings of eruptions sent by texts to residents.// Emergency services were also well prepared. 

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Haiti earthquake, 2010. LEDC


  • Located on the edge of the Caribbean plate, therefore vulnerable to tectonic activity
  • Houses poorly built, made of concrete blocks and concrete rooves and are on steep slopes, with a vast lack of resources in the country
  • 2/3 people were unemployed before the earthquake with 1/2 the population living in poverty
  • Haiti ruled by dictators

Consequences: 1/3 buildings collapsed (300,000)// 200,000 died// 250,000 seriously injured// All communications and electricity destroyed// 1.3m homeless// Chaos in government// Cholera outbreak// Huge aftershocks


  • International help from RAF
  • Aid arrived in 24 hours
  • Help from UN soldiers
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Australia Droughts

Droughts are periods of little or no rain that negatively affects people, agriculture and/or indusrty

Natural causes: Heatwaves - anticylones.// Evapotransportation.// Southern Oscillation - El Nino and La Nina.// Natural variation in weather patterns. Human causes: Over use of water resources.// Dams.// Deforestation.// Climate change/global warming.

Droughts in Australia typically happen during the El Nino period

Consequences: Water shortages.// Wildfire.// Water tables reducing.// Land degradation.// Fisheries collapse.// Farmers commit suicide as their income fails due to livestock dying.

Management: Farming - limited irrigation and change in crops.// Government subsides.// GPS so they know the areas worst affected.// Houses - increased use of grey water.// Media support eg. charities.// Education and planning.// Improving pipes.// NGOs water aid.

17% drop in winter rainfall in SW Australia since 1970

No significant rainfall for two years in Queensland and 62% of New South Wales

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Kenya drought, 2009

Droughts are periods of little or no rain that negatively affects people, agriculture and/or indusrty


  • Deforestation;
  • Global warming as they cause the high temperatures;
  • LEDC so cannot afford management, evacuation or dams.

Consequences: Environmental - Animals died including key species such as lions and zebra.// Lake Nakuru is drying up.// Crops fail.// No land for cattle.// Rivers such as the Njoro dry up. Human - 19m suffer from hunger and thurst.// hygiene levels decrease.// 15% rise in malnourishment.// Education becomes too expensive.// No tourism.// Food prices go up 130%.// Less electricity.// Diseases.

Management: NGOs such as UNICEF and Water Aid were helping.// Logging is banned.// Education on how to fight droughts.//  Dams.// £15 million aid given from UK alone.// Little compensation given to farmers

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Hurricane Katrina, 29th August 2005, New Orleans,


  • 175 mph winds, Category 5 storm when at sea.
  • Category 4 when it hit land, with 150 mph winds
  • Storm struck at night
  • 15ft storm surge (6m)
  • Levées failed
  • Flood walls collapsed
  • 80% underwater
  • Soil is wet which New Orleans is built on
  • Most is beneath sea level

Consequences: USA is an MEDC so the impacts were less severe - 25,000 residents decide not to leave.// Bridges and roads collapsed.// 1800 died.// Roof was ripped off the superdome.

Management: Helicopter rescue.// Army of scientists and rescuers tried to find the source.// Built sea walls on top of levées.// Built 25ft sheet pilings and built deeper foundations.// $12bn on rebuilding levées.// 15,000-25,000 packed into the superdome

Took 29 days to pump out the water

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Cyclone Nargis, Myanmar, 2nd May 2008, LEDC

Causes and properties of the Cyclone:

  • Low vertical wind sheer
  • Warm waters
  • Low pressure
  • 200kmph winds, Category 4
  • 600mm rain
  • Shallow sea - big storm surge
  • 1000 people per square km
  • 50m people
  • Life expenctacy - 57
  • Dictatorship


  • 200,000 dead
  • 2 million homeless
  • 3 days after the government was still not letting help into the country
  • Flooded within 2 days
  • All electricity gone
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