Geography - All case study's (Unit 1 & 2)

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  • Created by: Wpullen
  • Created on: 13-04-17 15:16

The Restless Earth - Volcanic Eruption

Name of volcano - Monterat 1997

Location - Carbbean

Type of volcano - Composite

Casue

Destructive plate boundary, Plate names were Camibean and North America

EffectsPrimary - 23 people killed

             Secondary - Airport closed

             Effects/impacts - Negaitve, homes distroyed, along with tourist industry

People's responses

Immediate - Evactuations, over 5000 left, 50% left island

Longterm - £41 Million given, each islander offered £2,400

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The Restless Earth - Tsunami

Name and date - Indian ocean 2004

Places affected - S,E Asia

Cause

Strength of earthquake - 9.0 Richter scale

Plate names were Pacific plate and Indo Australian

Effects -  Secondary - 220,000+ dead, 500,000 houses destroyed. Fishing boats destroyed

               Close to epicentre - Indonesia

              Distance affected - 4000km

People's responses

Immedoate - Blankets and food given. In one week over £450million dotated

Long term - Earlt warning tsunami, bouys in indian ocean

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The Restless Earth - Earth quake in rich part of w

Place and date - L'Aquilla, Italy 2009

Richter scale - 6.3

Cause

Type of plate boundary - Destructive

plate names were Eurasian and African

Effects-  Primary - 290 deaths, 1,500 injured

             Secondary - Water pipe caused landslide

             Effects - High, Economic costs was $315 billion but less social effects

People's responses

Immediate - Camps build for 58,000 homeless, taxes suspended

Long term - Promise to build new town

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The Restless Earth - Earth quake in poor part of w

Place and date - Kashmir, Pakistan 2005

Richter scale - 7.6

Cause

Plate boundary - Destructive

Plate names were Eurasian and Indo - Australian

Effects-    Primary - 80,000 death, 75,000 injured

                Secondary - Disease and starvation

                Effects - High, costs to repair low, but social costs great as 40,000 people relocated

People's responses

Immediate - Little responses - blocked roads which meant little help could get there

Long term - New health centres, relocation, Money from goverment

4 of 10

Water on land - River flood In poor part of world

Name of country - Bangladesh 2004

places affected - Dhaka

Causes - Snowmelt in himalayas

Physical - Floodplain and 70% of land above sea level, monsoon rains 2000mm per year

Human - Removed forest increases soil erosion and overland flow

Effects - Flood covered more than half the country, 760killsed, 8.5 million homes, bridges and roads distroyed 

People's responses

Short term - provide food, water, medicine, plastic sheets, boats and rescue people

Longterm - 3500km of coastal and river embankments, dams and storage basen

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Water on land - River flood in rich part of world

Name of country - UK

Location - Boscastle, Cornwall

Causes

Physical - 200mm rain in 4 hours, steep vally sides, narrow vally funnelled water

Human - Bridge in vally held water back, trapped vechicles etc, made flooding worse

Effects - 3m high wall of water, cars swept into harbour, Shops and houses distroyed 

People's responses

Short-term - Helecopters airlifted people to safety

Long-term - Impact on tourism, shops open 1 year after event

6 of 10

Water on land - Dam/reservoir in the UK

Location - Kielder water, Northumberland

Issues resulting from its construction:

Economic - Job oppotunities in tourism and forestry

Social - Water and land based activitites in and around the lake

Envirometal - Largest woodland in the uk created

Sustainable water supply - Most reliable, supplyed water in the driest years

Benefits greater than costs?

    -Successful scheme, benefits were greater than costs

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Coastal Zone - Coastal flooding

Location - London and SE England, Thames

Causes

Why is the risk high - Low-lying area, sinking into sea due to rising sea level - global warming

Impacts

Economic - Propertry assets - £100billion

Socal - 1.25 million people live in Thames flood zone, 69 tube stations, 400 schools

Political - Houses of parlment in floodzone 

8 of 10

Coastal Zone - Coastal habitat

Location - Essex marshes

Environmental characteristics

Mudflats, sand banks, salt marsh and grassland

Species living there

Crabs, birds(redshank, oystercatcher) and marsh plants

Strategies for conserving the enviroment

Allow rising sea levels to flood the land, seperae farmland - managed retreat

Sustainable strategy?

Highly sustainable, managed retreat - working with nature

9 of 10

Coastal Zone - Coastal management

Location - Mappleton, holderness coast

Reasons why needed - Village threatened to be lost to the sea

Methods used

£2 Million spend on coastal protection - Rock groynes and cliff protection

Hard/soft engineering?

Hard engineering

Benefits - Mappleton village rate of erosion reduced + protected

Drawbacks - Increasted rate of erosion further down the coast

Overall

The drawbacks are huge as large ammounts of farmland and settlement down the coast are under threat

10 of 10

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