Geogpraphy (Human)

Changing Urban Environments

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  • Created by: laura
  • Created on: 24-04-12 11:26


Urbanisation: The Increase in the percentage of people living in Urban Areas.

Millionaire Cities: Urban area with > 1 Million Inhabitants

Megacities: Urban area with > 10 Million Inhabitants

Causes of rapid Urbanisation in developing world cities:

High Fertility Rate

Rural to Urban Migration

Central for economic and Industrial activities

Push Factors: Reasons to Leave a Place

Pull Factors: Reasons to Go to a Place

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Problems of Urbanisation

Social: Poor Healthcare, Overcrowding, Homelessness, Lack of Services, Crime, Poor education, Abandoned kids 'Street Children', Unemployment is high.

Economic: Unemployment, Poor Wages, 'Informal sector work'- Unfixed wages, No Contract, No Notice, No Protection, No Minimum wage.

Environmental: Litter and Pollution, Congestion, Poor Sanitation, No Clean water, Open sewers- Disease, Polluted Rivers.

Shanty Towns: Good... Close to Friends, Low Cost Housing, Close to Industrial ares, No rates or rent.

                         Bad... No Drains, Sewerage or Water Supply, Few Schools or Medical Care, No Gas or Electricity, Rubbish dumped in Streets, Unmade Roads, Disease common, Major Crime Problems, Jobs Temporary and Low Paid, Informal Sector work is common.

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Rural To Urban Migration

Push Factors: Mechanisation in Farming has reduced the number of Jobs available, Natural Hazards- Flooding, drought, Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Lack of services- Schools and Hospitals, Increasing Population puts pressure on the land, Over Grazing causes soil erosion, Farming is hard- poor soil, long ours, little pay, no profit. Many families do not own their land- Landless Labour with poor pay.

Pull Factors: Better Paid jobs, Factory work earns 3X more than Farming, Westernized life- 'Bright Lights Syndrome' Streets paved with gold, Better services such as schools and healthcare and entertainment and water supply and sewerage, opportunity for a better quality of life.

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Urban Morphology- THE CBD UK

CBD Characteristics:

Large offices and Shops, Including department Stores

Has the Widest variety of goods on sale

Has high land value, rent and rates (Explaining tall, close together buildings)

Is the main place of work during the day- leading to traffic congestion

The most accessible Location with main roads and main railway stations

Few people Live here

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Urban Morphology- THE INNER CITY UK

INNER CITY Characteristics:

Old High-density terraced houses, some 3 or 4 storeys high- Often Flats

Old with sometimes abondoned factories and warehouses

Area of Derelict land  around railiway sidings, Unused docks and canals

High rise flats (1960s)

Some smart new developments

Generally has a run down appearance

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Urban Morphology- Suburbs UK

SUBURBS Characteristics:

Inter-war semi-detatched houses and small shopping Parades (Main Roads)

More modern housing estates of semi-detatched and detached houses (Off Main)

Some Private estates

usually houses have gardens and garages with open space

the more recent and expensive housing is the outer suburbs

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Urban Morphology in Developing World Cities

MUCH LESS REGULAR (Planning controls are much weaker and explosive growth means newcomers will take any land to live on [Squatter Settlements])



Expnsive Housing


Modern Factories

Squatter settlements

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The CBD goes through phases of decline and growth.

The core frame in the CBD...

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Environmental: Housing is old, terraces or cheap tower blocks

                         Many derelict buildings which are often vandalised

                         Shortage of Open space; most of the existing is wasteland

Social: Above average # of Pensioners, Single Parents, ethnics minorities, students

            <Than average levels of health, >than average drug abuse and crime

            Difficult Police- Community Relations

Economic: Local employment declines as industries and docks are closed

                  >Average Unemployment- Especially for The Young/Ethnic Minorities

                  High cost of land compared to the Suburbs

                  Low income and widespread poverty

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During 18th/19th centruy- Busiest Port in the World. Surrounded by Industry

ISSUES: During th 50's ship sizes had increased and could not reach Londons docks. BY the 70's the area was derelict with few Jobs, Amenities and Poor Living. Families were forced to leave the area to look for work and better lives elsewhere.

In 1981 the LDDC was set up to improve social, economic and environmental issues of the area.

SOCIAL(New houses and recreational amenities and Improved shopping) 22,000 new homes- Luxary flats... 10,000 Refurbished terraced houses... Shopping malls

ECO (New jobs and improved transport to and within the area) Jobs from 27,000-90,000... Huge office blocks (Canary Wharf) City Airport, New roads (M11 Link)

ENVIRO (Reclaimed derelict land, cleaned up the docks, planted trees and created open space) 750 Hectares of derelict land reclaimed... 200,000 trees planted... 130,00 hecaters of open space created

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The area became too high class and expensive for locals

They didn't have the skills to find jobs

Shops and recreational prices rose due to wealthy newcomers

There was now colleges and universities for the school leavers

Shopkeepers could charge alot more

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Greenfield sites (Open land never been built on)

British people prefer their homes in rural areas because they are healthier...

For every 3 people moving into cities, 5 move to the countryside...

It is cheaper to build on and doesn't need cleaning up. 12.5% of all new homes are built on greenland

Destroying nature and wildlife habbitats...

Conflicts with the locals...

Transport links need to be built... Greater time to travel to cities...

wasted free space in the cities...

New amenities such as water, electricity need to be provided...

ruins the look of the country.

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Brownfield sites (Previously build up land that ca

Already 3/4 of a million unoccupied city houses to be upgraded...

1.6 million could be build on derelict land...

urban living reduces the reliance on a car...

80% for the demand for new houses will be singles parents who need to live in the city...

Close to the city or town...

It has to be cleaned up - Expensive...

Congestion problems... Surrounding areas aren't very nice...

The land is Expensive... Limited in size... Contaminated for Industrial use

No Parking...

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Urban Sprawl and Rural-Urban Fringe

Urban Sprawl: Outward spread of towns and cities into taking over rural ares.

Rural-Urban Fringe: Area of countryside laying on the edge of the main built-up area, sometimes partly build on.

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Traffic Issues In Urban Areas



Diffucult for Emergency Services

Parking Issues

Danger for Pedestrians

More Cars, More Accidents

The Streets were layed out a long time before the car was invented so the roads are norrowed with little pavement.

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Traffic Management... London

Underground... Lines serve everywhere in the centre and some of the suburbs... The worlds first underground railiway system... Over 1 billion passangers journeys a year

Surface railways... Most towns in south-east england have a service to London... More traibs operate to and from london stations in a day than the whole of switzerland in an entire year.

Buses... A dense network of serve and link up to the railway stations

Tramlink... Croyden/South-London Tramlink

Boats... On the River Thames

Barclays Cycle hire

Congestion Charges (Pay to Enter the City)

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Sustainable City... Curitiba Brazil (South East)

Population of 1.8 Million- Described as a 'Human City'

Bus Rapid Transport system (BRT) Reduced 27Million Auto trips a year and 27Million litres of fuel... 1,100 buses make 12,500 trips per day serving >1.3 Million... Costs are low travelors only spend about 10% of their income on travel (Below average)

Waste Management... Recycles 70% of its waste... More that 95% of population have a regular waste collection... School children recycle waste in exchange for theatre tickets... Families exchange waste for food- 4kg waste= 1kg fruit or veg... 280 tonnes of waste is collected each month... slum residents that cant be reached by garbage trucks bring out their rubbish for exchange of eggs, fruit and vegetables.

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Assisted Self Help in Brazil SAO PAULO

The council provide electricity wires, water pipes and bricks but the residents actually have to build the houses... People learn skills, and new roads provide access to busses so they can travel further for work... Improved roads mean emergency services, busses and waste trucks have acces.

Single storey houses with cheap building materials such as breeze blocks.

Paraisopolis (Paradise city) is home to around 80,000 people. it has been linked to the main service network of Sao Paulo, upgraded and urbanised... Many areas now have piped water, electricity, schools.

in 2008 a brazilian chain store (Casas Bahia) opened its first ever store in a favela.

ILLEGAL- Squatter Settlements (Shacks)- Shanty towns (Self built houses)- [Regular work, Community ASH action, Legal titles, publice service]- Low Income Residential Area - LEGAL

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