Geog: Unit 2: Rebranding

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Rebranding: Developing a place to reposition its image and change people's perspective of it, helping to 'sell' the place to a target audience.

Regenerating: Positively transofmring the economy of a place that has displayed symptoms of decline.

Reimaging: Positively changing the standing and reputation of a place though specific improvements e.g. increasing cultural identity such as Liverpool, capital of culture 2008

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During rebranding, what four aspects have to be co

1) ENVIRONMENTAL FOCUS: To improve derelict infrastructure and the quality of the environment.

2) SOCIAL FOCUS: To overcome the spiral of decline and deprivation and the cycle of poverty.

3) ECONOMIC FOCUS: To improve job opportunities and bring income to the area.

4) POLITICAL DIMENSION: To raise money for projects through the 'bid industry' which is necessary for successful rebranding.

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What factors influence CBD decline?

1) People are having a change of attitude towards city centres and seeing them as dirty and unsafe with an ageing environment and poor infrastructure.

2) The cost of development is high as this includes business rates, rents and land costs.

3) Investors and businesses are now attracted by peripheral sites which have good access, pleasant environments and often lower costs.

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What are the rural rebranding strategies?

FOCUS: On building on what's there. Local producers have to make and market something specialised in order to differntiate themselves from the competition and to celebrate their local distinctiveness.

> Specialist food products such as Devon cream and Cornish ice cream
> Rural heritage and tourism
> Arts and media projects
> On farm tourism: fishing, riding centres, pigeon shooting, accommodation etc.
> Rural industry developments: specialist furniture, jewellery and other services.
> Rural energy: local hydroelectric schemes, solar and wind turbine projects
> Farming organic crops or growing herbs for use in food, cosmetics, drinks industries
> Off-farm diversification: woodland development such as paintballing
> Food towns specialist markets e.g. Ludlow food market

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What are the urban rebranding strategies?

FOCUS: drawn on identity, culture, and heritage. Or act as a catalyst for development of certain things such as technology or sport.

> Developing specialist areas
> Encouraging reurbanisation: developing old warehouses
> Improving public transport: trams, trains, tube station etc.
> Themed events: christmas markets, food fairs, festivals etc.
> Improvements in the quality and range of retailing and the general shopping environment
> Creation of sustainable cities (Curitiba, Brazil)
> Use of sport, art and culture to attract investment and external funding
> Technology-led enterprise to attract new investment and economic opportunities

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What are the coastal rebranding strategies?

> Specialist shops and confectionary: rock, fish and chips etc.
> Luxury hotels
> Water and coastal improvements: coastal defences
> Attractions: Blackpool pleasure beach
> Public transport
> Grande pier
> Housing developments
> Job opportunities for people suffering such as fishing decline

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Rebranding players

> Government
> Natural England (rural: grants for farmers agricultural schemes)
> Heritage Lottery

> Mayor
> Tourist Centres
> Property Developers
> Media
> Travel Agencies
> Transport Companies

> European Funding

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What are the roles and responsibilities of stakeho

> To attract funding
> To identify the issues in an area
> Develop goals that address the problems identified
> Develop strategies to achieve goals
> To fund projects
> Marketing
> Advertising
> Evaluating
> Ensuring customers

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What are the three different approaches by stakeho

TOP DOWN APPROACH: Rebranding decisions are made by authorities and agencies and are imposed on particular people or places.
+ Strategic in nature and offers a coordinated strategy.
- Local people may feel isolated from decision making processes and therefore refuse to show involvement. Also ignores local knowledge which could lead to mistakes being made.

BOTTOM UP APPROACH: Rebranding decisions are made by listening to local opinion and devising solutions to problems.
+ Local people are closely involved in the developments and get to express their opinion and give their local knowledge.
- This approach often depends on local volunteers meaning there may be a lack of power for any changes to be developed and enforced.

PARTNERSHIP APPROACH: Combines the top down and bottom up approaches. Partnerships are made up of representatives from state, private and voluntary sectors so a range of opinion is outspoken and listened to.
+ Various people take part so a range of opinion is heard.
- Large numbers of partnerships can be involved during the decision making processes which can make it difficult to come to a conclusion making the process bureaucratic and longwinded.

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Why is rebranding neccessary?

> Loss of retailing provision to out-of-town locations.
> Loss of businesses and commercial functions to more peripheral locations such as science parks, and loss of industries in some towns and citites.
> Inaccessibility for the private motorist (congestion charging, parking) and the expense of getting to the city centre
> Increasing costs - might have to employ a town centre manager to promote and market the area.

> Lack of transports infrastructure; public transport infrequent and car ownership expensive
> Agricultural change - mechanisation, competition from overseas, high-profile disease (e.g. foot and mouth)
> Moving away from government-supported agriculture; increased requirement to diversify
> Depopulation in some areas - loss of residents due to limited employment and expensive housing

> Ease and affordability of overseas travel makes UK coastal areas appear less attractive and plagued by bad weather
> Decline in the hotel and guesthouse trade - rundown appearance and decline in economy
> Inaccessibility of some coastal towns
> Decline in fishing industries

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How can we evaluate how successful a rebranding sc

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: Looking at qualities such as shopping, landscape, litter and the streets.
Green landscape, a decrease in litter, increase in public transport, public shopping, clean streets.

DROSSCAPE SURVEY: Mark on a map where you have seen significant amounts of derelict land and decay
> Revisited and marked on a new map to say how these areas of land have been changed and how land use has been adopted.

CAPACITY SURVEYS: Allows you to asses the usage of facilities over a period of time.
> Increase in usage of facilities such as sport, shopping and other leisures.

STATISTICS: Looking at data such as population and employment rates.
> Unemployment rates should have decreased.

LOCAL NEWSPAPERS: Local newspapers can tell you from a public view what areas need rebranding.
Can say success or failure. May be unreliable, as exaggerated.

FOOTFALL SURVEYS: Counting the amount of people using and in a certain area.
> Should increase in areas as more people drawn to the area.

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