GEOG 2 skills

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Dispersion diagrams

A graph with one column where data is spread out over the one axis.

Advs;

  • Can work out range, median, mode, lower quartile, upper quartile and interquartile range.
  • Anomalies are shown easily.
  • Shows how reliable the data is.
  • Can work out the standard deviation.

Disadvs;

  • Works better with a lot of data.
  • Standard deviation can be manipulated.
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Radial diagrams

Shows how a variable changes due to an independent variable e.g. wind direction changes.

(http://www.enviroinsite.com/img/features/charting/img9.gif)

Advs;

  • Can compare lots of sets of data.
  • Visual
  • Individual variables within the diagram can be compared.

Disadvs;

  • Hard to spot anomalies.
  • Hard to make scale suitable.
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Kite diagrams

Often used to show quantity of plant species and how they vary with distance as the wider the data points means that the more common they are.

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-d47ItAnxBpk/UoSY7JTxduI/AAAAAAAAAG0/WH1XPD9uonc/s1600/tracechart396.png)

Advs;

  • Clear and easy to understand.
  • Shows changes over distance (bedload).
  • Shows density and distribution of variables.

Disadvs;

  • Not all data can be represented by these charts.
  • Time consuming to plot by hand.
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Pie charts

Out of 100% these a breakup of data into a percentage of the total which is then shown by segments on the pie chart.

(http://orm-chimera-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/1230000000345/images/idvw_1101.png)

Advs;

  • Allows fractional and percentage comparison.
  • Visual - can see a general.
  • Display approximate variations.

Disadvs;

  • May not be accurate.
  • Can't represent more than one point at a time.
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Line graphs & bar charts

Where a variable is plotted against an independant variable e.g. rainfall against location.

(http://www.kwiznet.com/images/questions/grade6/math/Probability_bar_line_graph.gif)

Advs;

  • Comparisons can be made easily.
  • Anomalies are clear.
  • Shows general trend.

Disadvs;

  • Can be tedious and time consuming.
  • Can often require additional data for them to be useful.
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Dot maps

Shows distribution over an area.

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/e4ff248622e19fa303d72e259e0d6201b8ceea9e.gif)

Advs;

  • Shows variation and pattern.
  • Easy to interpret.
  • Effective in showing spatial density.

Disadvs;

  • Actual values can't be seen.
  • Time consuming if done by hand.
  • Easy to make a mistake.
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Triangular graphs

Allows 3 proportional variables out of 100% to be plotted against each other.

Advs;

  • Easy to compare.
  • 3 bits of data can be compared at the same time.

Disadvs;

  • Difficult to construct.
  • May be interpreted wrong.
  • Difficult to read - need background knowledge to understand.
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Proportional circles

Where the size of the circle shows the population of data, often for one area.

(http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-cpgxeBxXeQo/Tv75G8qXq6I/AAAAAAAAAL8/TpLrBmBVlA8/s1600/range+graded.jpg)

Advs;

  • Visual.
  • Can represent large range of data.
  • Not dependent on size of an area.

Disadvs;

  • Difficult to produce.
  • Not accurate / can't extract data.
  • Overlap can make it confusing to read.
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Flow line

Indicate a line of movement with its thickness representing the volume of movement and direction the line of flow.

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-fYngI_XdVKA/Tv7_MCP-4XI/AAAAAAAAAMU/R5X4MBxk7wQ/s1600/oil+trade+flows+graph.jpg)

Advs;

  • Immediate impression - can tell general trend.
  • Gives clear sense of direction.
  • Shows movements easily.

Disadvs;

  • Hard to draw.
  • Flows can overlap.
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Chloropleth maps

Uses colour overlay over a map to show how an area fits into a range of values, often with darker values representing the higher values and lighter for the lower values.

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-X-mPHIbpn0o/TiNJsV_UP8I/AAAAAAAAACg/S60oRUDi5dY/s1600/standardized.png)

Advs;

  • Gives general trend easily.
  • General anomalies can be identified.
  • Easily done by hand.

Disadvs;

  • Too general.
  • Reading exact figures is impossible.
  • Variations within each area are hidden.
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Isoline graphs

Where data points on a map are joined up with data points of equal values e.g. contour lines.

(http://www.acegeography.com/uploads/1/8/6/4/18647856/4364641.gif)

Advs;

  • Can see gradual changes.
  • Can see areas of equal value.
  • Drawn easily on computers.

Disadvs;

  • Small lines and numbers on graphs may be difficult to read.
  • Does not show continuous distributions.
  • Only works when changes are gradual.
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