Genetic Variation and its Control

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Adult Cell Cloning

An egg cell is taken from an organism and the nucleus removed. Then a body cell is taken from another animal, and the nucleus is inserted into the empty egg cell. An electric shock causes the egg cell to begin dividing to form an embryo. The developed embryo is then inserted into a surrogate mother. 

The offspring is genetically identical to the animal that the nucleus came from. 

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Embryo Transplant

An egg is taken from an animal, and is then fertilised in a dish with the sperm of a male animal. Each embryo is allowd to develop in the dish to the eight cell stage. The embryo then splits into four 2-pair cell embryos. New embryos then develop into eight cells. Each then inserted into a surrogate mother. Embryos develop inside the surrogate mother and the new animal is born. 

The offsprng are genetically identical to each other, but not to the parents 

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Tissue Culture

Small groups of cells are taken from part of a plant. The cells are then grown on agar containing nutrients and hormones. The samples develop into tiny plantlets, and the plantlets are then planted into compost. 

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