Genetic Variation



Cell: The basic unit of all living things

Chromosone: A long, coiled up length of DNA that contains many genes

DNA: a type of acidic chemical that contains genes

Gamete: A cell that only contains half the normal amount of DNA (23 chromosones)

Gene: A short length of DNA that stores the information for a particular gene

Nucleus: Contains the DNA

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Asexual & Sexual reproduction


  • Only one parent, Identical offspring
  • Can be done alone, Good genes are passed on
  • All offspring are identical, No adaption
  • Uses mitosis (One cell splits into 2)
  • Bacteria, Daffodils, Strawberries


  • 2 Parents, Variation in offspring
  • Organisms can adapt to new surroundings
  • Must find a mate, Uses meiosis (2 sex cells)
  • Humans and animals
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Cloning Plants


  • Can be done quickly
  • Needs rooting hormone
  • Can be grown by anyone
  • Grown in soil
  • Not as many cuttings can be taken from one plant
  • Needs watering
  • Need to cut off a large part of the plant

Tissue cloning:

  • Can be left to grow
  • Only a few cells needed
  • Many cells can be taken from one plant
  • Needs growth medium
  • Needs sterile conditions & tools
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Embryo Cloning // Adult Cell Cloning

Embryo Cloning:

  • Original embryo is produced from sexual reproduction
  • Cells of embryo seperated (up to 4)
  • Cells develop into indentical individual embryos
  • Implanted into different surrogate mothers
  • All offspring are identical (up to 4 offspring)

Adult Cell Cloning:

  • A normal cell is taken from animal A and the nucleus is removed
  • An egg cell is taken from animal B and the nucleus is removed
  • The normal nucleus is inserted into the egg cell
  • The egg cell develops
  • The embryo is implanted into a surrogate mother of the same species
  • The offspring is a clone of animal A
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Genetic Modification/ Engineering


  • Identify desired gene
  • Cut out using enzymes
  • Transfer gene to other organism (usually bacteria)
  • Can be used to create insulin
  • Genes can be transferred to different species- herbicide resistant plants transfer genes so that insects are also resistant
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