What Is Genetic Engineering ?
A Cell contains a Nucleus, a Nucleus contains Chromosomes, Chromosomes contain DNA.
Genes can be transferred between different organisms. Genetic Enginering alters the genetic code of an organism. A gene giving a desirable charecteristic is removed from one organism and inserted into another.
The genetically modified organism is called a transgenic organism.
The two main uses of genetic engineering are to produce medicines, produce better crops and factors to treat haemophillia.
Making Human Insulin Through Gentic Engineering.
The idea is to put the human insulin gene into bacteria so the bacteria can make human insulin. The bacteria reproduce making millions of insulin producing bacteria.
Scientists identify the gene that makes human insulin, they remove it from the human cell by cutting it with a restriction enzyme. A loop of bacterial DNA (plasmid) is prepared for the insulin to be inserted. Enzymes are used to cut open the plasmid. Insulin gene is inserted into the plasmid. Another enzyme - ligase - is used to join the inserted gene to the bacterial DNA. The bacteria are checked using Assaying Techniques to make sure they contain the gene. The bacteria are then cultivated to produce millions of identical bacteria, all making insulin.
Advantages and Disadvantages
• crop yeild is increased - cheaper food, crops are more nutritional.
• medicines produced can save lives.
• unexpected harmful effects - changing an organisms genes, mutation.