Genes and the environment

Revision on cloning, hybrids, cross breeding, selective breeding and plant sections

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Genes and the environment


Organisms from different but fairly closely related species reproduce to make offspring that cannot reproduce.

Selective Breeding

Breeds are different varieties of a species of an animal, we have different varieties of plants.

Selective breeding is a process used to produce different animals within a breed of animal or varieties of plants that have useful characteristics.

Cross Breeding

Different breeds of an animal may be mated with each other to produce offspring with characteristics from both breeds.

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Genes and the environment


Identical twins are when during the process of an embryo developing the cell divides to make two identical embryos. Cloning is when you take an egg cell and take out the nucleus, you take the nucleus of the animal that you want to clone and you insert it into the egg cell and insert it into the animals uterus.

Sections of a plant

The filament (m) - holds up the anther

anther (m) - creates male sex cell, pollen grains

Ovary (f) - Where the female egg cell is made, the ovule.

Style (f) - holds up the stigma.

Stigma (f) - Where the pollen grains are collected

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Genes and the environment

How plants reproduce

Plants can reproduce asexually, where another branch branches out of the main plant. Humans can do this by cutting off the stem of a plant and planting it in soil. Or there is the pollination way, where pollen gets collected onto the stigma through bees or the wind and grows a tube and fuses with the female egg cell, ovule (fertilization). Humans can take the pollen from a plant and insert it on another plants stigma and cover it with a plastic bag.

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