Gender in Conversation - Theorists

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  • Created by: georgia
  • Created on: 30-04-13 21:17

Topics of conversation

Lakoff 

  • womens vocab includes trival words because they are relegated to decisions about unimportant subjects

Komarovsky

  • Women speak about family and personal matters
  • Men speak about money, business, sport, work and local politics

Coates 

  • Men prefer topics that allow participants to take turns at being the expert
  • Women are more personal

Tannen 

  • Men assume role of infomation giver or fixer
  • This reinforces strength and status
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Weak expletives

Lakoff 

  • Women use 'oh dear' instead of 'sh*t'

Kramer 

  • Cartoons in New Yorker found males swore more than females
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Tag questions

Lakoff

  • Adds uncertainty to statement

Fishman

  • Women use 3 times more tags, not for uncertainty - keep conversation going

Holmes

  • Modal tags - seek info
  • Affective tags - soften/concern
  • Facilitative tags - draw listener in
  • 61% modal tags used by men
  • 75% facilitative tages by women

Cameron and Coates

  • Monitor whether others are in agreement

Coates

  • Men use tags to seek information from one another
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Intensifers and qualifiers

Lakoff

  • Intensifiers (so, such) avoid strong statement or committing to an opinion

Spender

  • Qualifiers (perhaps, maybe) show uncertainty when used by women
  • Show certainty and authority when used by men
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Hedges

Lakoff

  • Punctuate speech with uncertainty

Fishman

  • Women use 'you know' five times more than men
  • Not for uncertainty, for conversational work

Cameron and Coates

  • Help statements become negotiable and retractable 

Coates

  • Men hedge less
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Hypercorrect grammar

Lakoff

  • Women more likely to comply to grammatical rules

Trudgill

  • Norwich study found women using correct pronunciation (running instead of runnin')

Cheshire

  • Reading study found that even at an early age women use more standard forms
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Interruptions and overlaps

Zimmerman and West

  • 98% of interruptions were men
  • Interrupted women more than same sex conversations
  • Women also interrupt women more than they do men
  • Men overlap with women more (100% of overlaps were mens)

Tannen

  • Interruption overlaps can be supportive and co-operative when used by women
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Silences

Zimmerman and West

  • Single sex conversations - lasted 1.35 seconds
  • Mixed sex conversations - lasted 3.21 seconds
  • Women kept being interrupted so spoke less

Tannen

  • Women see listening and supporting as essential for group bonding
  • They assume their turn will be granted
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Co-operation

Cameron and Coates

  • Refers to particular type of conversation
  • Speakers work together to produce shared meanings
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Minimal responses

Coates

  • Women make well placed minimal responses
  • Men make them too late
  • Indicates a lack of interest and support
  • Leads to women falling silent
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Imperatives

Tannen

  • Men use more, especially with their sons
  • Women use cloaked imperatives (lets)
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Comments

georgia

The slide has been edited so some of the words are starred! If you haven't noticed, these words are s-e-x (dashes have to be used so it doesn't get starred out haha)

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