AO2a - Girls; in general, now outperform boys in all areas of educatioin. They do better at GCSE and A level, and are more likely to go onto university. However differences still remain in the nature of subjects studied, there are still clear 'genered subjects' at all levels particulary post 16 and degree level.
- 59% of girls and 48% of boys gain 5 or more GCSEs grade A* to C
- 43% of girls and 34% of boys gain 2 more more A levels
- A level entries are more segregated - English Lit and Social Studies each had 70% of entries from girls, whilst 76% of Physics entries were by boys.
AO2a - Women are still at a disadvantage in the labour market. They are more likely to be unemployed or in part time employment. They are also segreated in the workplace. Horizontal segregation means women are concentrated in different types of occupation to men, usually of lower status. Vertical segregation means women face barriers reaching higher levels of management, through this may be changing as women make further gains.
- 46% of people in the labour market are women
- In the 16-64 age group, 2/3 of women and over 3/4 of men are in employment
- 44% of women and 1/10 of men who work are in part time
- In 2000 women constituted only 18% of hospital consultants, 7% of university professors and less thaan 5% of company directors
Child care and Employment
AO2a - Women's career paths are more likely to be affected by having children as they take a career break to care for children and as a consequence they are more likely to take up part time employment or perhery type employment when they return to work.
- Mothers of under fives, 52% are in employment, and 2/3 of those working as employees are part time
- In 2000 44% of female workers were part time
McDowell - Post fordism requires: core of multi skilled workers (mainly men) and part time ancillary workers (mainly women).
Part Gap and Pensions
AO2a - Despite some equalling due to equal pay laws there still exists a gap in the average incomes of males and females which persists and in resistant to change. Women also tend to build up lower pensions that can lead to poverty later in life.
- In the 1998 women in their early twenties earned 92% of the male wage
- The averahe gross weekly pay of all women is only 72-5% of men's earnings
- At the present rate of change, women will have to wait until 2040 to achieve equality in pay
Grimshaw and Rubery - believe that the pay gap between men and women has stopped narrowing because sub contracted and performance related pay have depressed women's wages in the public sector and women continue to do the part time work.
The Glass Ceiling and Sticky Floor
AO2a - Women can face barriers when they come to promotion prospects in many sectors of work (glass ceiling). They can also get stuck in low paid, low skill jobs (sticky floor).
Brewis and Linstead - The glass ceiling can be viewed as an 'invisble, implicit but impenetrable barrier which prevents women from reaching senior positions within organisation'
- Although women now account for 30% of managers in Britain, they still earn 24% less per hour than male managers
AO2a - Women are still more likely than men to be victims of domestic violence which is still widespread in our society and continues to be a problem.
- Domestic Violence has the highest rate of repeat victimisation of any crime - 35% of households have a second incident within five weeks of the first.
- Almost a third of domestic violence starts during pregnancy.