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  • Created by: Unum
  • Created on: 07-05-13 09:46

Kohlberg's theory of gender development

McConaghy (1979)

Children shown line drawing - judged doll to be female despite being able to see male genital through dress

+ External reliability

- Lacks ecological validity

- Western culture --> Ethnocentric bias, population validity

- Contradictory evidence (Sandra Bem) - Genital knowledge

40% could conserve gender , but of those who didnt 77% failed gential knowledge test

- Reductionist/ Deterministic / self report measures (cognitive)



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Martin and Halverson- Gender Schema Theory


  • Visual preference technique
  • Babies aged three months, nine months, eighteen months
  • 3 month old babies showed minor preference for watching same sex
  • By 9 months-boys preffered to look at and watch 'boys toys'
  • Supports idea babied develop schemas before they speak and schemas drive child to focus on their gender groups

+External reliability

-Western babies

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GST continued

Tenenbaum and Leaper (2002)


  • Meta-analysis supports GST
  • Positive correlation between parents' gender schema and childs gender schema

+10,193 participants - high population validity


-Western countries

-Cognitive approach/Reductionist/deterministic/self report methods used

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