GENDER

BIOLOGICAL - hormones/genes, evolutionary, bisocial

PSYCHOLOGICAL- cognitive, androgyny, dysphoria

SOCIAL- social, cross cultural

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GENDER DEVELOPMENT: GENES AND HORMONES

difference in gender- hormonal. CHROMOSOMAL, brain structure and function.

CHROMOSOME: A : 23 pairs, 23rd- **= female xy= male

CHROMOSOME: S: anything other than ** or xy. may result in klinfelters or Turners syndrome.

TESTOSTERONE- predominately male hormone. affects behaviour and development before/after birth. 5th month of foetus; secreted into glands- help external organ development. Psychologica affects: CAH.

OESTROGEN- female hormone, develops FM characteristics- sexual&menustration. Physical and PMT, PMS- higher emotionality and aggression.

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GENDER- SLT.

Bandura 1986- behaviours learnt - copying.

IMITATION: no relation between imitator an imitated. Observation

REINFORCEMENT: reward for behaviour = repetition

IDENTIFICATION: similar to someone = aspire to be like/similar to them

MODELLING: reconised role model- they will try and be like them.

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GENDER: COGNITIVE

how the child understands gender. KOHLBERG 1966

GENDER IDENTITY 2/3yrs: doesnt understand gender. stays constant at all times/situations. rely on external appearance- clothes.

GENDER STABILITY 3/4yrs: doesnt understand gender same in all situations. relies on superficia things; Realises gender stays constant.

GENDER CONSISTENCY 4/7yrs: realises gender stays same despite superficial changes.

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