GENDER DEVELOPMENT: GENES AND HORMONES
difference in gender- hormonal. CHROMOSOMAL, brain structure and function.
CHROMOSOME: A : 23 pairs, 23rd- **= female xy= male
CHROMOSOME: S: anything other than ** or xy. may result in klinfelters or Turners syndrome.
TESTOSTERONE- predominately male hormone. affects behaviour and development before/after birth. 5th month of foetus; secreted into glands- help external organ development. Psychologica affects: CAH.
OESTROGEN- female hormone, develops FM characteristics- sexual&menustration. Physical and PMT, PMS- higher emotionality and aggression.
Bandura 1986- behaviours learnt - copying.
IMITATION: no relation between imitator an imitated. Observation
REINFORCEMENT: reward for behaviour = repetition
IDENTIFICATION: similar to someone = aspire to be like/similar to them
MODELLING: reconised role model- they will try and be like them.
how the child understands gender. KOHLBERG 1966
GENDER IDENTITY 2/3yrs: doesnt understand gender. stays constant at all times/situations. rely on external appearance- clothes.
GENDER STABILITY 3/4yrs: doesnt understand gender same in all situations. relies on superficia things; Realises gender stays constant.
GENDER CONSISTENCY 4/7yrs: realises gender stays same despite superficial changes.