Gender Revision Cards

  • Created by: topmarks
  • Created on: 03-01-18 14:23

Sex and Gender

Sex - Biological Difference betwen males and females (hormones/chromosomes/anatomy)

Gender - Psychological + Cultural differences (attitudes/behaviours/social roles)

Sex-role Stereotype - preconvinced ideas about what is expected in a society

Gender Identity Disorder - when biologically determined sex does not match how they feel or what they percieve their gender to be - can take hormone therapy/get surgery

1 of 10

Androgyny and the BSRI

Androgyny - Balance of masculine and feminine characteristics in one's personality
BSRI - Bem Sex Role Inventory - 1974, 20 'feminine', 20 'masculine', 20 'neutral' traits, rated 1>7
High M, Low F                      Masculine
High F, Low M                      Feminine
High M, High F                     Andgrogynous
Low F, Low M                       Undifferentiated

  • Scale appears valid + reliable - developed by asking 50/50 split of males and females to rate 200 traits in terms of how masculine or feminine they are, then piloted w/ 1000 students
  • Association between A + Psychological well-being - Bem placed emphasis on fact that A people more psychologically healthy, as can deal with all situations - Challenged - Adams and Sherer 1985 - more masculine traits more valued in Western society
  • Oversimplifies - too complex, alternatives to BSRI developed eg. Personal Attribute Questionnaire (PAQ) - still based on idea that gender identity is quantified, Golombok+Fivush 1994 say GI more global concept and broader issues should be considered
  • Cultural and Historical Bias
  • Issues with Questionnaires
2 of 10

Chromosomes and Hormones

X+Y = male, X+X = female, 50% of each type in sperm
Chromosomes develop sex but hormones take over development, act on brain development
Male Hormones = Androgens
- Surge in testosterone at puberty
-Androgenic Effects cause growth of RO
-Anabolic Effects build up structures
-Determines female RO, maintains bone strength (hence osteoporosis in menopause)
Oxytocin + Childbirth
-Larger amount in females
-Contractions, widen cervix, feel love for baby
-Reductionist - oversimplifies complex concept
-Overemphasis on nature - Maccoby + Jacklin (1974) found more differences within genders than between
-Research Support - Dabbs et al (1995) found higher levels of testosterone in prisoners led to more violent crime
-Contradictory Evidence - Tricker et al (1996) gave males testosterone and placebo, found no significant difference in aggression

3 of 10

Atypical Sex Chromosome Patterns

Klinefelter's Syndrome - around 1/750 people, Biologically males, have XXY Chromosome, around 2/3 of people that have it do not know they do. PHYS: reduced body hair, breast development, softening of body contours, clumsy, long gangly limbs, more susceptible to eg. breast cancer. PSYCH: poorly developed language skills + reading ability, shy, passive, lack sexual interest
Turner's Syndrome: 1/5000 biological females, missing an Xchromosme so X0, 45 instead of 46. PHYS: do not have menstrual cycle, ovaries don't develop so sterile, broad chest w/ no breasts, low set ears, webbed neck, high waist:hip ratio, physically immature. PSYCH: higher than average reading ability, BUT spatial, visual memory + maths lower than normal, socially immature

  • Contribute to nature-nurture debate - can compare people, see psych + phys differences - suggests innate 'nature' influences have a large effect on behaviour + psychology
  • Environment Explanations - not causal, may be that environment + social influences responsible for differences, may be wrong to assume that diffs. down to nature
  • Practical Application - earlier diagnoses + more positive outcomes in the future
  • Unusual sample - lack of generalisability////Typical v Atypical -assumptions of what is normal
4 of 10

CE: Kohlberg's Theory

-Suggests children's understanding of gender parallel to intellectual development
Learn gender behaviours at 7 when realise gender is constant
-Gender Identity (2-3), recognise own gender, identify others based on appearance (eg a skirt)
Gender Stability (3-7), realise gender fixed but influenced by external changes
Gender Constancy (7-12), understand gender constant over time and all situations

-Research Support - Munroe et al (1984) studied kids from all cultures and developed at same rate
-GC challenged - Bussey + Bandura (1992), kids felt good playing with gender-appropriate toys and bad about doing the opposite
-Methodological Issues
-Comparison w/ SLT - hard to explain differences in this theory
-Comparison w/ Boilogical Approach - apparent 'unaversality' of K's theory supports its biological basis

5 of 10

CE: Gender Schema Theory

  • Martin + Halverson - Gender understanding develops with age, develop understanding of gender by actively structuring own learning, not passivley observing + imitating role models
  • Schema - mental constructs that develop via experience, organise knowledge in topics
  • Establish gender identity at age 2-3, search for info that encourages development of schema
  • For young children, schema likely based around stereotypes eg. dolls v trucks, framework
  • So by age 6, have a fixed and stereotypical view of gender
  • Better understanding of own gender (ingroup) than oppostite (outgroup), as pay more attention
  • Evidence support - M&H (1983) - <6 more likely to remember gender consistant photos, Martin + Little (1990) - <4 no signs of gender stability/consistency
  • Ridgidityof believes - explains why hold very fixed attitudes to gender, contradicts Kohlberg's
  • Complements Kohlberg's Theory - Stangor + Ruble (1989) - suggested schema+constancy may describe 2 different processes, once reach consistancy stage, want to learn more about this role
  • Overemphasis on the role of individual in gender development
  • Key assumptions not supported - says easy to change schema and behaviours, but it isn't
6 of 10

Psychodynamic Explanation of Gender Development: F

  • Psychosexual Stages: Oral > Anal > Phallic > Latenet > Genital
  • Prior to phallic (age 3-6), they have no concept of gender identity - Freud says they're bisexual
  • Oedipus Complex - boys develop incestuous feelings for mother + jealous hatred for father, they realise father is more powerful than he is so is scared will be castrated (what he believes father did to mother). To resolve, gives up love for mum and identifies w/ father
  • Electra Complex - at same age girls have penis envy, believe her and mum in competition for father's love, blame mum for lack of penis, Jung suggested replace wiyh desire for children
  • Identification + Internalisation - identify with same sex parent to reolve conflicts, so take on board a gender identity (internalisation)
  • Key Study - Little Hans - one of only pieces of evidence given by Freud
    • Not enough on females - most of girls written by Jung, Freud admitted women were a mystery
    • Non-nuclear families - theory can't explain single sex or single parent households - Golombok showed how they could go on to develop normal gender identities
    • Lack of scientific rigour - as unconcious considered untestable
    • Disagreement over GI - idea of bisexuality contrasts yo oyher explanations
7 of 10

Social Learning Explanation of Gender Development

Identification – role model is someone who child identifies with – normally same gender
Modelling – precise demo of behaviour
Direct Tuition – specific instructions about gender appropriate behaviour eg Boys not Barbie
Direct Reinforcement -more likely to be reinforced for doing gender 'appropriate' behaviour
Differential Reinforcement - way in which kids encouraged to show distinct GAB
Indirect Reinforcement - learn vicarioudly by watching results of surrounding situations
Mediational Processes - Attention, Retention, Motivation, Reproduction. LINK TO GENDER!
Smith and Lloyd (1978) - Parental Influence, dressed babies as opposite gender
Bussey and Bandaur (1992) - Children aged 3 disapproved of gender role inconsistent behaviour, eg girls playing football, but rated their own feeling about boy/girl toys equally. However, 4-year-olds disapproved of gender role inconsistent behaviour whilst also being self-critical in feelings to play with gender role inconsistent toys

  • Research Support
  • Explains changing gender roles in western society
  • Not a developmental theory
  • Compare to biological/psychodynamic approaches
8 of 10

Influence of Culture and Media on Gender Roles

  • Cross-cultural research contributes to the n/n debate - eg. if same in dif. cultures, innate
  • Mead (1935) - studied tribes in New Guinea - Arapesh (gentle, responsive, WF), Mundugumor (aggressive, hostile, WM), Tchambuli (dominant women, passive men, opposite to west) - suggests may not be direct bio. relationship between sex + gender
  • Buss (1995) - consistent patterns in mate preference (37 countries) - women sought men who offered wealth+resources, men looked for youth+attractivness
    • Criticisms of Mead - not seperating own opinion, observer bias, Freeman (1983) - Mead was misled + had preconceptions
    • Imposed etic - Western cutural interests/understanding imposed
    • Nature/Nurture - does not solve debate
  • Media provides role models which may identify with + want to imitate
  • Rigid Stereotypes - men (independent, ambitious, give advice) women (opposite)
  • Furnham + Farragher (2000) - men more likely to shown in autonomous roles in work context
  • Kids with more exposure to popular forms of media tend to have more stereotypical views
    • Correlation not Causation
    • Counter Stereotypes
9 of 10

Atypical Gender Development

Gender Identity Disorder (GID) - strong persisant feelings of identifying with opposite gender

Biological Explanation - eg. Turner+Kleinfelter,
Brain sex theory suggests caused by specific brain structures which don't match biological sex, (post mortems M>F, BSTc same size as that in Fs),
Genetic Factors Coolidge et al (2002) 96MZ 61DZ, prevelance of GID 2.3% in 62% of cases

Social-psychological Explanations -
Psychoanalytic Theory Ovesey+Person (73)-GID caused in males by seperation anxiety b4 GI establised so adopts female GI, 
Cognitive Explanation - Liben+ Bigler (2002), extension of GSchema theory which emphasises individua ldifferences in GI, dual pathway theory (acknowledges development of GS, then personal pathway where GI affected by own activity

  • Contradictory Evidence - Pol (06) - gender hormone therapy affects size of BSTc
  • Twin Studies are inconclusive - limited generalisation
  • Biological oversimplifies - reductionist
  • Issues with psychoanalytical/cognitive theories
10 of 10


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Gender resources »