Gender Dysphoria

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  • Created by: KCharlish
  • Created on: 29-05-16 17:33

AO1 Childhood trauma

  • Mental illness caused by some childhood trauma or maladaptive upbringing

Coates - studied a boy with GID

  • defensive reaction to mothers depression following an abortion
  • led to a cross gender fantasy as a means of resolving the anxiety
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AO1 Male hormones

  • abnormal prenatal exposure to male hormones
  • mismatch between hormones and genetic sex
  • CAH - ** individuals have high levels of hormones prenatally and develop a small penis
  • sex typed as male
  • outcome = gender dysphoria
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AO1 Transsexual gene

  • Hare et al
    • 112 MtF trans. found a version of the androgen receptor gene that caused reduce action of testosterone
    • effect gender development
    • = dysphoria
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AO1 Brain sex theory


Twice as large in heterosexual men as in heterosexual women

2x as many neurons

Zhou et al

  • number of neurons in the BSTc of MtF trans. was similar to females

size of BSTc correlates with preferred sex 

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AO2 Little support for Psychological explanations


  • 435 individuals experiencing GD
  • range of psychiatric disorders no greater than found in normal population
  • GD is unrelated to mental illness
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AO2 Inconsistent research

  • not been consistent reseach for abnormal exposure to male hormones


  • 250 genetic females with CAH who were raised as females
  • 95% content with role despite pre natal exposure to male hormones
  • remaining 5% did experience GD 
  • generally no clear relationship
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AO2 Chung


  • differences in BSTc volume did not develop until adulthood
  • most trans report feelings of GD in early childhood
  • BSTc differences may be an effect
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AO2 Support - Rametti


  • studied the brains of FtM trans before transgender hormone therapy - in terms of white matter
  • FtM individuals had a more similar pattern to individuals who share their gender identity
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IDA Campaigns

  • providing information about the effects of erraneous sex assignations and determining the best solutions
  • organisations campaign for the rights of intersexes and rely on reseaech evidence to show influences of gender self concepts
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AO2 Types of Gender Dysphoria

different types


  • Homosexual transsexuals - attracted to men
  • Non Homosexual transsexuals - sexually aroused by the thought of themselves as a woman

Needs to be different explanations

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IDA Sensitive nature

  • biological cause identified = others more accepting about the needs of trans.
  • harm individuals born with the abnormality - assumed transsexualism is inevitable
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