SED TACTICS & STRATEGIES

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  • Created by: Helen
  • Created on: 09-04-13 12:29

GDR CONSTITUTION

1949 - VOLKSKAMMER - REPRESENT THE PEOPLE - PRESIDENT NOW COLLECTIVE COUNCIL OF STATE - MEMBERS OF THE VOLKSKAMMMER NOT DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED.

PROPAGANDA - FREE UNTION TRADE LEAGUE (FDGB) - EVERY WORKER A MEMBER - OFTEN REPRESENTED WORKERS INTERESTS - DEMOCRATIC WOMENS LEAGUE OF GEMRANY (DFD) - SOCIETY FOR SPORT & TECHNOLOGY PROVIDED ENJOYMENT BUT ALSO GEARED FOR WAR - STATE RUN YOUTH GROUPS - COMMUNISTS CONTROL EVERY SECTOR OF GERMAN LIFE - YOUNG PEOPLE URGED TO BE PART OF COMMUNIST FREE GERMAN YOUTH - OTHER YOUTH GROUPS BANNED - MIXED SEX ORGANISATIONS - ENGRAINED SENSE OF HARD WORK & INDIVIDUAL SACRAFICE - 1947 VAST MAJORITY ENROLED

INTIMIDATION - 200,000 PROSECUTED FOR POL.REASONS - INTIMIDATE &CRIMINALISE ANY OPPOSITION - CRITICS HINDERED IN FREEDOM - FEB 1950 STASI FOUNDED - FIGHT AGAINST SABOTEURS - 1955 13000 MEMBERS - 1989 91,000 MEMBERS - SPY ON PEOPLE - IM 175,000 - NO LEGAL RESTRAINTS ON THEM

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EDUCATION

EQUAL OPPURTUNTIES FOR ALL - CENTERALLY CONTROLLED STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM - ESTABLISH COMMITMENT TO SOCIALISM &ENSURE FUTURE GENERATIONS SERVE SOCIALIST CAUSE - LAW FOR DEMOCRATISATION OF GERMAN SCHOOLS 1946EXPANSION OF PRE SCHOOL EDUCATION - ABOLITION OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS, SELECTIVE SCHOOLS, RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS - CENTRALISED CIRRICULUM - POLYTECHNIC UPPER SCHOOLS 6-16YRS - UNIFORM INTRODUCED - SPORT  & PARAMILIATRY TRAINING.

CONTROL POLICE & JUDICARY SYSTEM - 1950 1/2 OF JUDGES 86% PUBLIC PROSECUTORS MEMBERS OF SED - JUDGES  WERE RETRAINED ON SHORT INTENSIVE COURSES - MANY LACKED LEGAL QUALIFICATIONS - JUDGES NOT INDEPENDANT - CONTROLLED BY SED INSTITUTIONS - LAW ADAPTED TO SURPRESS OPPOSITION

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BERLIN BLOCKADE

24TH JUNE 1948 - GDR CUT OFF LINKS TO FRG - ATTEMPT TO STARVE FRG TO COMMUNISM - AID AND RESOURCES DROPPED IN BY ALLIES - LASTED 318 DAYS - 275, 000 TRASNPOIRTED 1.5 MILLION TONNES OF SUPPLIES - BLOCKADE ABANDONED 12TH MAY 1949 - "BERLIN AIRLIFT" - EFFECT BERLIN WALL BUILT

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EARLY OPPOSITION NOT SUCCESSFUL

WHY DID UPRISING START? - EAST BERLINERS UNRESTFUL - TIGHTENEING OF BORDERS, COLLECTIVISATION OF AGRICULTURE, EMPHASIS ON PRODUCTIVITY - WORKERS HAD TO PRODUCE 10% MORE - WAGES STAYED SAME - REVERSAL POLICY ANNOUNCED SUDDENLY - DIFFERENT MESSAGES FROM COMMUNIST PAPER & OFFICAL TRADE UNION NEWS PAPER - 16TH JUNE WORKERS OF CONSTRUCTION SIRE FOR SALINALLE DOWNED TOOLS - PROTESTED - NEW SPREAD THROUGH GDR - FIRST MASS UPRISING AGAINST COMMUNISM

HOW WAS IT CRUSHED? - SOVIET TANKS - MASS ARREST - VIOLENT REPRESSION

AFTERMATH - WORK NORMS WITHDRAWN - CONRTOELLED PRICES OF BASIC FOODS LOWERED - MORE CONSUMER GOODS INTRODUCED - TAXES OF FARMERS REDUCED - STASI STRENGTHENED - ULBRICHTS POSITIONS SABILISED - E.GERMANS ABANDONED

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HOW DID GDR CHANGE ECONOMNY

LAND REFORMS - SMALL PEASANT PLOTS GIVEN - 1945 - DIFFICULT TO MAKE PROFIT FROM - SOLUTION COLLECTIVISATION - FORMATION OF LAND PRODUCTION COOPERATIVES - 1952 - FARMERS UNAHPPY - WANTED TO ABADANON FARMS - FLEE WESR - PROBLEMS - FOOD SUPPLY - SOCIAL UNREST - 1960-61 - MASS FLIGHT - CAUSED BERLIN WALL - LONG TERM - E.GERMAN AGRICULTURE V.EFFICENT

INDUSTRY - LARGE ENTREPRISES SOVIET - PRIVATE ENTREPRISES GONE - MID 1960S - PRIVATE SECTOR TINY - 1950S EMPAHSIS ON HEAVY INDUSTRY - FOCUS ON PRODUCTION TARGETS - TARGETS CENTERALLY DETERMINED - LITTLE REGARD FOR CONSUMER DEMAND - UNREALISTIC FIVE YR PLANS - LIVING STANDARDS IMPROVED SLIGHTLY - RATIONING TILL 1958 - WALL STABLISED LABOUR FORCE - 1963 - nEW ECONOMIC SYSTEM FOR PLANNING & DIRECTION - FLEXIBLE & INPUT - PROFIT EMPHASIS

BANKING & FINANCE - ZONE STRIPPED OF ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE - 1950 - 25% INDUSTRIAL GOOD DIRECT TO USSR - TRADING WITH ECONOMICALLY BACKWARD COUNTRIS - BANKING SECTORS LARGELY UNDER STATE CONTROL - E.GERMANY HIGHEST LIVING STYANDARDS IN USSR

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SOCIAL CHANGES IN GDR

WORKERS & TRADE UNIONS - FREE GERMAN TRADE UNION LEAGUE - EVERY WORKER MEMBER - SED POLICIESM - WORKED IN MEMBERS INTRESTS

RELIGION&CHURCHES - 15M PROSETANTS - 1M CATHOLICS - FIRST CHURCHES SEEMED EXEMPT FROM CHANGES - RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION REMOVED FROM CIRRIC - EARLY 1950S - CONFRONTATIONS - 1952-53 - SED CAMPAIGNED AGAUBST MEMBERS OF JUNGE GERMUNDE A PROSTETANT YOUTH GROUP - DIFFICULT TO GO SCHOOL OR UNI - JUGENWEIHE RESUSCITATED - IMPOSED ON EAST GERMANSD - THOSE REFUSED DISCRIMINATED AGAINST 0 PRESSURE TO CONFROM - LATE 1950S - CHURCH CAPITULATED - 1960-1970 CHRISTIAN MARXIST DIALOGUE - STASI INFLITRATED CHURCH - GDR SAID CHURCH SUPERSITIOUS - ASSUMED DISAPPERANCE - STRICT DIVISION BETWEEN CHURCH &STATE - RELIGION IGNORED BY MEDIA - LIFE FOR CHRISTIANS DIFFICULT

WORKERS&TUS - WELFARE SYSTEM CENTERALLY CONTROLLED - FREE HEALTHCARE - PENSIONS FOR MEN 65YO WOMEN 60 - ACCIDENT INSURANCE - 'WORKERS STATE' - INCOME LOWER THAN WERSR - FAR LESS EARNING HIGH INCOMES

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SOCIAL CHANGES IN GDR

YOUTH &EDUCATION - YOUNG PEOPLE IMPORTANT - EDUCATION SYSTEM REDESIGNED - COMPREHENSIVE LINKS WITH INDUSTRY - VARIED EDUCATIONAL ROUTES - SCHOLARSHIPS - MATURE STUDENTS - SED CONTROLLED YOUTH GROUPS = YOUNG PIONEERS 6YO - 14YO - ORGANISED - KIDS ENJOYED - KIDS NOT CONVICED OF GDR ANTI AMERCIAN STANCE - GLOBAL YOUTH CULTUE - SED RESPONSE - CLAMP DOWN - TRY TO UNDERSTAND WITH GENTLE PERSAUSION

SOCIALIST INTELLIGENTSIA - WORKING CLASS GOT DEGREES - MIDDLE CLASS NOW SOCIALIST INTELLIGENTSIA - COMMITED TO SYSTEM - WOMEN SUPPORTED IN WORK - MATERNITY CARE PROVIDED - EXPANDED AID IN REPRODUCTIOPN & PRODUCTION - MAKE POLITICAL COMPRIMISES HAD STAKE IN SOCIETY - GENUINE OPPORTUNITES

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THE BERLIN WALL 13TH AUGUST 1961

WHY? - LEADERSHIP CONCERNS - MIGRATION FROM GDR - DIFFICULTIES FOR GDR ECONOMY - FRG CAPITLASIM UNDERMINED GDR STATE - 1961 VIENNA MEETING - KRUSHCHEU - DECLARED ALL OF BERLIN SOVIET - KENNEDY REFUSED SAID WEST BERLIN FOR ALLIES

CONSEQUENCES - UNABLE TO TRAVEL WEST - 239 KILLED TRYING TO ESCAPE

IMPACTS - FAMILIES DIVIDED - WEST BERLINERS CONCERNED ABOUT THEIR FUTURE - ENCIRCLED BY WALL - ALL TELEPHONES CUT - DEMONSTARTION IN WEST - USA DIDNT RESPOND - FRG MILITARY FORCES STRENGTHENED 0 WALL INCREASED STABILITY IN GDR - WORKERS WORK HARDER TO CREATE SUCESSFUL SOCIALIST SOCIETY

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