FIBRES AND FABRICS
There are many Fibres and Fabrics. They are:
Acrylic = moth resistant, mildew resistant, insulation
Linen = thermal conductivity, strong, absorbent
Polyester = abrasion resistant, stretchy, insolent, resistant to acids
Triacetate = moth resistant, resistant to alkalis, stretchy
Wool = absorbent, insulation, stretchy, flame resistant
Acetate = moth resistant, mildew resistant, resistant to acids
Cotton = strong, absorbent, resistant to build up static electricity
Nylon = abrasion resistant, stretchy, strong
Silk = absorbent, flame resistant, strong
Viscose = absorbent, resistant to build up static electricity, moth resistant
Natrual ibres are used in textiles. These can be from animals or plants.
The main animal based fibres are wool and silk and the main Plant based fibres are: Cotton, linen, jute, hemp,
Synthetic Fibres are also used. These are Man made fibres from oil based products.
such as Acrylic and Polyamide
Micro fibres are fine synthetic fibres such as Polyester and nylon.
Regenerated fabrics are made from natrual fibres which have had their structure chemicaly altered by man. These are made from diffrent combinations of chemicals and cellulose water and some example of this are viscose and acetate.
Yarns are fibres that have been twisted into long lengths and are wounded onto spools or cones. They are made by spinning and twisting fibres together using one of two methods. The worsted spinning system produces a smooth yarn and the woollen spinning system produces a hairy yarn.
The yarn is then spun in an anticlockwise direction (s twist) or a clockwise direction (z twist). When making more complex yarns both Z and S twists are combined in equal amounts to prevent distortion. There are different types of yarn which are:
Spun yarn, Filament yarns, Multi filament yarns, Monofilament yarns and assembled yarns and folded yarns.
Individual and Mass
Individual means a one off production of a certain item. Only one operator or team is needed assembles a unique one off product at the wish of a specific client. This system involves highly skilled workers, is labour intensive, uses versatile machinery, and takes a long time to complete the product, which means that the end product is usually of high quality but also of high cost.
Types of Mass/Volume Production
Repetitive flow production/flow line production:
this system relies on producing large numbers of identical products for a low cost. It’s expensive to set up but the mass production leads to lower costs because of buying in bulk, the system can be fully automated, and UN skilled labour can be used.
Continual flow production:
this is the uninterrupted production of a product until it is completed, this method involves production for 24 hours a day, but it is expensive to stop the production.
Straight line system:
This system is good for large batches of products for large retailers. Each worker has their own section which they do everyday. This system is good because they produce a large production, and workers no what there doing so there is little mistakes.
Production Methods 2 (Batch)
Types of Batch Production
Progressive bundle system:
Workers do each section of the product, the advantages of this our there are smaller lot sizes and delivery times are reduced.
this system is used by factories that deal with frequent style changes and small numbers of products produced each batch. Each worker specialises on a garment component and then it is put together.
Just in time:
this production requires regular deliveries of components from suppliers which arrive just in time and are used immediately. The advantages of this are costs are low due to low storage needs, production is relatively fast, and quality is mostly maintained.
The advantages of batch production are it is flexible and can be easily changed, batches can be repeated, a variety of styles can be made, and staffs enjoy flexible working conditions.
The disadvantages are lost time during the change in production of one textile product to another, equipment needs to be re set after each production run, and staff sometimes specialize in one aspect of production and work may therefore become repetitive and boring.