GCSE RE Trial Examination Year 10 2010 Mark Scheme

GCSE RE Trial Examination Year 10 2010 Mark Scheme.

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1c. What is it meant by situation ethics?

  • The idea that Christian should base moral decisions on what is the most loving thing to do in a situation.
  •  Choosing to do the most loving thing in a situation.
  •  Deciding to do the most loving thing.

1b. Do you think Christians should accept all human rights laws?


  • Sanctity of life – life belongs to God.
  • Freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
  • The right not to be discriminated against in respect of these freedoms.


  • Against the right to form civil partnerships because homosexuality is against God’s will.
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  • Marrying someone from a different faith because children should be brought up as Christians
  • Opposed to homosexuals raising a family because children should be brought up by a mother and father
  • A woman wanting to become a priest in a Catholic Church or a Catholic priest wanting to marry (forbidden by Catholic Church)

1c. Explain why Christians use a variety of authorities when making moral decisions.  (8)

  • Bible.  Word of God.  Lifestyle and actions of Jesus.  Teachings – Decalogue and Sermon on the Mount.  Letters to early Christians about what to believe and how to behave.
  • Church= body of Christians on earth today.  Have elected representatives to make decisions for supporters e.g. Catholic Church has Magisterium consisting of Pope and Bishops to make decisions called edicts.  General Synod of Church of England.
  • Conscience.  Voice of God talking directly to you.
  • Situation ethics.  Joseph Fletcher an American told Christians they should follow Jesus’ example and do the most loving thing even if it conflicted with the teachings from the Bible and the Church e.g. healing a paralysed man on the Sabbath Day supposedly a day of complete rest.
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1d. “Christians should agree with cloning.”  In your answer you should refer to Christianity. 

I)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your answer.   

 2) Give reasons why some people may disagree.  

  • Liberal Christians agree so long as it helps cure disease as Jesus was a healer of the sick
  • Discovering genetic make-up of humans and using this information to improve human life is part of what God wants humans to do as stewards of creation.
  • Embryos not regarded as human life until 14 days old
  • Is monitored by the law
  • Catholics and some other Christians argue life begins at conception
  • Killing an embryo is killing a human life
  • Embryos are produced by using technology such as In vitro fertilisation and artificial insemination which is playing God. 
  • People shouldn’t tamper with people’s unique genetic characteristics which is only God’s role.
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  • It is wrong to make the earth perfect as only heaven is perfect.

2a.What is meant by the Decalogue?  

Ten Commandments from the Old Testament

2b. Do you think it is important to vote in elections?  Give two reasons for your answer.  

  • National government sets rates of tax and collects taxes
  • Local councils set local tax rates which people have to pay
  • The national government can pass new laws that can affect your life like compulsory identity cards.
  •  The national government runs important things like the prison service,, police, schools and armed forces.
  •  Local councils are responsible for refuse disposal, trading standards, housing services, street lighting etc.
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  • Your ancestors have fought to have these rights so it is important to exercise them
  • Countries that do not have these rights often treat their citizens badly and often have dictatorships
  • The European Parliament has some control over EU spending which affects how much tax the UK government collects

2c) Explain why the parable of the sheep and the goats leads some christians to bring about social change.

  • In the parable Jesus said he would separate humans into sheep and goats.  He described the sheep as people who had lived their lives according to Christian beliefs and been kind and loving to other human beings.  He said these people deserved to a place in heaven  The goats had been selfish and would go to hell.
  • Jesus showed that it is the duty of Christians to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, give drink to the thirsty, visit the sick and help those in prison.
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  • These teachings would affect the way a Christian votes and participates in politics.  They would support a party that favoured a Welfare State that offered benefits such as housing, social security, state education, to poor, ill and disabled people.  
  • They would take jobs such as teaching, social work, medicine that would be helping others and reject jobs such as banking that would allow them to become more self centred.
  • They would take jobs such as teaching, social work, medicine that would be helping others and reject jobs such as banking that would allow them to become more self centred.
    • Agree.  Word of God
    • Teachings on behaviour.  Decalogue and Sermon on the Mount.
    • Events in the life of Jesus and how he behaved.
  •  “The Bible is the best guide we can have when making moral decisions.” 

    1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your decision. 

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2)  Give reasons why some people may disagree with you. At least one of the points of view should be Christian with reasons from that religion. 

  • Letters from leading disciples of Jesus – St. Peter, St, John and St. James and apostle St. Paul.  These people wrote letters to earlyChristian Churches about how Christians should behave.  They knew Jesus and were guided by the Holy Spirit.
  • Disagree.  Some Christians believe the Church, conscience and situation ethics are a more important way of making decisions.

3a)  What is stewardship?  

Looking after something so it can be passed on to the next generation.

 3b)  Do you think we should be worried about natural resources running out?  Give two reasons for your answer.  

  • Finite or non renewable resources disappear once used.  These include oil, coal, iron, tin, copper, uranium, natural gas and hard wood.
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  • Oil is used for world transport but all plastics, road surfaces, candles, polishes and chemical foodstuffs come from oil so will have a major impact on people’s lives.
  • Metals are used car panels, railway tracks to pans and kitchen appliances.
  • Renewable resources.  Humans can use these over and over again. Wind power, solar power, water power, fertile land producing food, oil seed **** and sugar cane, soft woods cause no problems because they renew themselves.  However they are more expensive to produce.
  • Alternatives – new ways of producing electricity, powering cars, recycling, making chemicals and alternative lifestyles give possible solutions to finite resources.

3d)  “All religious people should carry a donor card.”  In your answer you should refer to at least one religion. 

1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your opinion.    

2)  Give reasons why some people may disagree with you.  

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  • Christians agree because they believe in the immortality of the soul and that the body is not needed after death, on the resurrection the body will be transformed and organs no longer needed.
  • Jesus told Christians they should love their neighbours, Jesus told Christians they should treat others as they wished to be treated, paying for organs may exploit the poor.
  • Christians disagree because transplants could disregard the sanctity of life, is usurping God’s role, questions when is someone dead as heart transplants require the heart to be removed from the body before it has stopped beating, the moral question of the surgeon who has to choose between saving the accident victim’s life or the patients, it is expensive and money could be used for other forms of medicine or surgery. 
  • Muslims agree because Muslim lawyers have agreed, a ruling Fatwa in 1995 in the UK said Muslims could carry donor cards, if a close relative is dying and a transplant will save them
  • Muslims disagree because Shariah teaches that nothing could be removed from the body after death and opposes post mortems, it is playing God, belief in the sanctity of life , all bodily parts will be needed on the Day of Judgement if  person is to be resurrected into heaven.
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4a)  What is surrogacy?  

An arrangement whereby a woman bears a child on behalf of another woman

4b  Do you think global warming is a problem?  Give two reasons for your answer.  

  • Agree because the earth is warmer than it has been for over a thousand years. 
  • This will lead to an increase in rainfall of 20% in England and Scotland by 2050.
  • It will lead to sea levels because of melting ice caps which means coastal areas will disappear. 
  • Southern Mediterraneancountries will become deserts. 
  • Disagree because alternative ways of making electricity – solar, wind, wave power, car power – biofuels, increased use of public transport.

4c.  Explain how the problems of pollution can be solved.  

  • Acid rain.  Stop using fossil fuels in power stations.  Alternative energy sources – wind, sun, tides and nuclear energy.
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  • Human waste.  Recycling, using incinerators to produce electricity, using sewage to produce methane gas or fuel for power stations.  Passing laws to fine people.  Reporting to local councils who will remove it.
  • Eutrophication.  Increase organic farming methods. 
  • Radioactive pollution.  Nuclear waste can be reprocessed up to 97%.

“Everyone has the right to have children.” 

 1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your opinion. Give reasons why some people may disagree with you.  

  • Infertility in the western world has increased to 12.5 % of the population in particular male infertility.2007 12% of births were due to infertility treatments.
  • It is a natural human instinct to reproduce and is becoming more difficult with infertility problems.  People may use artificial methods to reproduce such as IVF, AIH, AID and surrogacy.
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  • More liberal Christians agree with this as they believe it is a Christian duty to marry and have children who will be brought up as Christians.
  • Catholics disagree as they believe people should only use natural methods of conception and disapprove of infertility treatment as it leads to discarded embryos which is seen as murder, and allows masturbation which is forbidden.
  • Muslims agree with IVF and AIH because they believe it is their duty to marry, have large families and bring them up as Muslims but will only agree if the sperm and egg come from the natural parents.
  • Muslims disagree with other forms of infertility treatment because Muslim lawyers have banned it, it is regarded as a form of adultery and seen as similar to adoption which is forbidden by Muslims.

5a)  What is pacifism?  

The belief that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means 

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5b)  Do you think parents have the right to make children follow their religion?    

  • Religions tell parents it is their duty to bring up their children in the same faith
  • Parents say this is necessary because their children will become immoral without religion
  • Children will not be with them in the afterlife
  • Children will feel it is their human right to choose which religion they belong to or not belong to a religion at all.
  • RE at school will allow them to discover different view points rather than having it imposed on them and they will follow it with greater readiness.

5c) Explain why some Christians are against fighting in wars and some are not 

  • Pacifism.  Pax Christi, Quakers, Plymouth Brethren.  They may refuse to be involved in any kind of violence.
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  • Jesus told people in the Sermon on the Mount they should turn the other cheek and love thine enemies. 
  • Jesus stopped Peter from using violence when the soldiers came to arrest him with the sword. 
  • Fifth commandment ‘thou shall not kill’
  • For the first 300 years Christians refused to fight in any wars.
  • Because of weapons of mass destruction no modern war can be just.
  • Some Christians do believe in fighting through the just war theory. 
  • St Paul argued Christians had to obey their governments. 
  • Just wars happen when all other more peaceful methods of resolving the conflict have failed.  

5d.)  “If people were more religious, there would be no bullying.”  In your answer you should refer to at least one religion. 

1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your opinion.  

2.  Give some reasons why people may disagree with you. 

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  • Christians agree because using violence without just cause is sinful, it is the duty of Christians to protect the weak and innocent, in the Parable of the Sheep and Goats that Christians should treat anyone in trouble as if they were Jesus, people have the right to live without fear, bullying has harmful effects on society including lack of success in careers and contribution to society.
  • Muslims agree because society is based on Shariah law and mutual respect. Using violence without a just cause is sinful, all Muslims are members of the ummah, it is the duty of Muslims to protect the weak and innocent, Muhammad told Muslims in his final sermon that ‘every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim’, the right in a democracy to live without fear.

6a  What is a just war? 

A war that is fought for the right reasons and in the right way.

6b)  Do you think the United Nations is important?  Give two reasons for your point of view.  (4)

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6b)  Do you think the United Nations is important?  Give two reasons for your point of view.  

  • Imposes sanctions such as banning tade, cultural links, communications in countries threatening world peace
  • Authorising the use of force by member states to stop an aggressor
  • Sending a UN peacekeeping force to prevent the outbreak of a conflict, stabilise a conflict, assist in putting peace-keeping agreements into practice and lead states or territories to stable government based on democratic principles and economic development.

6c)  Explain how religious organisations work for world peace.  

  • Hold public debates on the horrors of war and conflicts and encourage supporters to vote for political parties that are opposed to war
  • Make public statements and organising protests about war such as condemning the Iraq War and Dafur conflict. 
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  • Organising and attending interfaith conferences to help all religions to work together to promote world peace.
  • Working for economic justice and global recognition of human rights to remove the causes of war.  

6d)  “Religion is the main cause of wars.”  In your answer, you should refer to at least one religion. 

1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your opinion.  

2)  Give reasons why some people may disagree with you.  

  • Agree.  Kashmir.  Kosovo.  Afghanistan (Page 66)
  • Disagree.  Nationalism and ethnicity – Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanks, Rwanda in 1994, Darfur.  Economies – Zimbabwe.  Iraq.  Ideological and political differences – Democratic Republic of Congo, Korean War. (pages 66-7)

 7a)  What is sin?

An act against the will of God.

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7b)  Do you think punishment is always right? 

  • Yes because of retribution – criminals should always play for their crime, deterrence – the severity of the punishment should put people off committing the crime, protection – by keeping criminals off the streets society is safer.  Reform – punishment can be used to reform criminals and stop them committing crime.
  • Christian churches have used punishment for heresy in the past.
  • Muslims use punishment for adultery, murder and apostasy committed against Shariah law.
  • No.  Christians would be in favour of forgiving criminals and allowing them to redeem themselves.  Jesus died on the cross to redeem Christians from their sin.
  • Jesus was opposed to punishment
  • Most Christian churches have condemned capital punishment.
  • Muslims oppose capital punishment but blood money can be offer instead.
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7c)  Explain why some Christians agree with capital punishment and some do not.

  • Agree.  Bible agrees with death penalty in Old Testament.  Christian church used capital punishment.  Thomas Aquinas a Christian thinker argued punishment would reform the sinner.
  • Disagree.  Jesus came to save mankind from sin.  Jesus banned retribution – an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, human life is sacred, most Christian churches condemn capital punishment.

7d)  “Religious people should always obey the law.”  In your answer you should refer to at least one religion. 

1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your opinion. 

2)  Give reasons why some people may disagree with you.

  • Agree because groups need rules otherwise society would live in chaos.  People could break the law.  Laws are needed so that people can work and be involved in business without someone taking away all the rewards
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  • of their work.  Rewards are needed to protect the weak from the strong. Sophisticated society like the UK needs laws to keep everything organised.
  • Disagree.  Christians would use situation ethics and this might lead them to break the law if they felt the law was unjust.  If they lived in a dictatorship which did not allow human rights such as China they might try and overthrow this government so that human rights could be introduced.

8a)  What is crime?  

An act against the law

8b)  Do you agree with capital punishment?  Give two reasons for your point of view.  

See answers to Question 7b and 7c

8c)  Choose ONE religion other than Christianity and explain why justice is important for the followers of that religion.

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  • The Quran teaches that God is a just God who will reward the good and punish the bad on the Last Day
  • As vice gerents of God’s creation they must behave justly towards other people and ensure the world is governed in a fair way.  This would involve following Shariah Law. 
  • No charging of interest because this money can be used to help the poor
  • The fair sharing of the earth’s resources.  Muslim Aid and Islamic Relief.

8d)  “It does not matter if religious people drink alcohol”.  In your answer you should refer to at least one religion. 

1)  Do you agree?  Give reasons for your opinion. 

 2)  Give reasons why some people may disagree with you. 

  • Agree.  Christianity.  The Bible agrees with the use of alcohol when Jesus had this at the Last Supper and told his disciples to continue the tradition.  Most churches use alcoholic wine in communion services. 
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  • Disagree.  Christianity.  Passages in the Bible warn against drunkenness which clouds judgement, inflames passions and incites violence.  A healthy lifestyle recommends abstaining from alcohol.  Christians work with alcoholics and experience the consequences of addiction and consumption.  Muslims are forbidden to drink alcohol, make it or sell it.  It cloud the mind, stops them being devout Muslims, will lead them to the devil, will harm their bodies part of God’s creation and is seen as a form of suicide because of bodily harm.      
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