Health = A state of complete Mental, Physical and Social well being. Not just absence from disease.
To have good health we need to:
- Eat a healthy balanced diet (Physical)
- Regular Exercise (Physical)
- Limited Alcohol and Not Smoking (Physical)
- Limit our stress levels (Mental)
- Regular rest and Sleep (Mental)
- Reduce our aggression (Mental)
- Look after self esteem (Social)
- Go and see friends regularly (Social)
Fitness = The ability to carry out everyday tasks without getting tired.
Good Fitness Habits:
- Get off buses early and walk
- Stairs not Elevators
- Exercise aids for office workers
Benefits Gained from Exercise:
- Improved Body weight - Lowers body wegiht (Physical)
- Relief of stress (Mental)
- Sleep Better (Physical & Mental)
- Reduce chance of illness (Physical)
- Go and see friends (Social)
Can you be fit but not healthy?
Yes you can be fit but not healthy, because you can be ill so you are not healthy but you can still carry out your everyday tasks without getting tired
e.g. - Jane Tomlinson had cancer (so she was not healthy) but she still took part in lots of marathons showing she was fit.
Basic level of fitness is needed to do some physical jobs - strength to lift things
flexibility so you can tie your laces up
Components of Fitness - Stength
Strength = the ability of muscle to bear weight
Dynamic Strength - Apply force against an object (e.g. hitting a cricket ball)
Explosive Strength - A short sharp burst of strength (E.g.Javelin throw)
Static Strength - Strength with no movement (e.g. Scrum)
Hand Grip Dynanometer
(Hold in hand, squeeze and read force off)
Components of Fitness - Reaction Time
Reaction Time = Time it takes to respond to a stimulus
Ruler drop test
Start at 0, as soon as you see the ruler drop you grab it and you read it off
Components of Fitness - Endurance
Endurance - Ability of heart and lungs to work for a long time without getting tired
Bleep Test - 2 cones 20m apart
Tape and speakers
Run in time with bleeps
12 minute cooper run - Run as far as you can in 12 minutes
Components of Fitness - Flexibility
Flexibility - Abiiltiy to use joints through full range of movements
Sit and Reach
Straight legs and you reach and hold and read of measurement
Components of Fitness - Agility
Agility - Abillity to move and change direction quickly
Illanois Agiliity run
set up cones and run course as fast as you can
Components of Fitness - Balance
Balance - Ability to remain stable when moving
Stand on tip toes, time how long you hold it
Components of Fitness - Speed
Speed - Ability to move all or part of the body fast
Time how long it takes to sprint 60m
Components of Fitness - Power
Power - Abililty to combine speed with strenght
Standing Broad Jump
Standing, measure from behind last foot
Standing Veritcal Jump - Measure height, jump, mark and measure amount jumped
Components of Fitness - Co-ordination
Co-Ordination - Ability to use 2 or more body parts at the same time
Hand wall ball test - how many time can you throw the 2 balls against the wall in 30seconds
Principles Of Training
When desigining a training shedule you need to follow these 5 principles
Specificity - Training needs to be specific to your sport (e.g. Long distance running for a sprinter isnt specific)
Progression - Training has to get harder over time
Overload - Make the body work harder than it is used to
Reversibility - Lose fitness 3x quicker than it is gained
Tedium - Make sure the training isnt boring, make it enjoyable (change what you do, go train with a friend / music)
Principles Of Training - 2
There are 4 things we can do to overload our body they are to increase:
Frequency - How often you train (increase from twice a week to 3 times a week)
Intensity - How hard you train
Time - How long you train for (20 mins, increase it to 25 mins)
Type - The activity we do
Methods of Training
- Circuit Training
- Weight Training
- Interval Training
- Continuous Training
- Fartlek Training
Type of training where you have many stations where you do a different exercise on each one.
At each station you have a set time. (Time)
After they have worked out for the set time, they then have a rest time
Circuit training can develop, power, strength, flexibility and endurance.
Circuit training will also develop aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Weight training involve lifting weights to increase the strength of muscles.
You have a programme of sets and reps.
e.g. 10 reps = 1 set and you do 5 sets
To do weight training you can use free weights or fixed weights
Weight training is mainly aimed at muscles
Heart is kept at a moderate, steady pace. Keeping the pulse between 60-80% of maximum.
The work specializes in aerobic exercise and aimed at long distance events
Continuous training is mainly to improve the heart and lungs.
Training involves where you work and then rest.
Can be adopted easily for different sports.
Rest periods for recovery to break down lactic acid.
Short interval training:
- 15 seconds sprint
- 30 seconds rest
- 20 seconds sprint
- 30 seconds recovery
- 25 seconds sprint
- 1 min recovery
Can work on aerobic and develop endurance
Can work on anaerobic and develop speed and strength
Fartlek = Speed Play
You can change the intensity of the training by increasing the...
- Amount you do it
Suited for games players.
You have a rest recovery section when you jog
Due to the change of intensity, fartlek develops your aerobic & anarobic fitness
Sprint running and jogging are all involved in fartlek and you mix these around to create a schedule
You make set times for each one.
A warm up consits of:
- Pulse Raiser
- Dynamic and static stretching
- Sport Specific Activity
Why warm up?
- Less chance of injury
- Makes you warm
- Gets you focused for training / match
There are two phases of the cool down
- Light aerobic work
Why should we warm down?
- To keep blood flowing around the body to help reduce lactic acid
- Gradual reduction of heartrate
- Reduce muscles soreness and acheness
Open Season - Where competitions and matches take place
Close Season - NO competitive matches, rest, recover and recuperate
Pre-season - Focus on fitness (Cardiovacular Endurance, Speed, Power, Strength, Agility
Sport specific skills
Peak Seaon - Still do fitness but only to maintain your level of fitness
More skill related to matches
Off Season - Small amount of fitness to maintain
Rest and recover
Some athlete do altitude training - this is where you travel to a country and train high up in the mountains where they have High Alritude.
Why is it beneficial?
- Because there body will adapt to lack of oxygen
- When they are back in england there is much more oxygen so you have more breath for longer.