GCSE PE - Unit 3


Health = A state of complete Mental, Physical and Social well being. Not just absence from disease.

To have good health we need to:

  • Eat a healthy balanced diet (Physical)
  • Regular Exercise (Physical)
  • Limited Alcohol and Not Smoking (Physical)
  • Limit our stress levels (Mental)
  • Regular rest and Sleep (Mental)
  • Reduce our aggression (Mental)
  • Look after self esteem (Social)
  • Go and see friends regularly (Social)
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Fitness = The ability to carry out everyday tasks without getting tired.

Good Fitness Habits:

  • Get off buses early and walk
  • Cycle
  • Walk
  • Stairs not Elevators
  • Exercise aids for office workers

Benefits Gained from Exercise:

  • Improved Body weight - Lowers body wegiht (Physical)
  • Relief of stress (Mental)
  • Sleep Better (Physical & Mental)
  • Reduce chance of illness (Physical)
  • Go and see friends (Social)
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Can you be fit but not healthy?

Yes you can be fit but not healthy, because you can be ill so you are not healthy but you can still carry out your everyday tasks without getting tired

e.g. - Jane Tomlinson had cancer (so she was not healthy) but she still took part in lots of marathons showing she was fit.

Basic level of fitness is needed to do some physical jobs - strength to lift things

flexibility so you can tie your laces up

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Components of Fitness - Stength

Strength = the ability of muscle to bear weight

Dynamic Strength - Apply force against an object (e.g. hitting a cricket ball)

Explosive Strength - A short sharp burst of strength (E.g.Javelin throw)

Static Strength - Strength with no movement (e.g. Scrum) 

Hand Grip Dynanometer
(http://gadget-buy.com/image/43/s/43189-1.jpg)(Hold in hand, squeeze and read force off)

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Components of Fitness - Reaction Time

Reaction Time = Time it takes to respond to a stimulus

Ruler drop test

Start at 0, as soon as you see the ruler drop you grab it and you read it off

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Components of Fitness - Endurance

Endurance - Ability of heart and lungs to work for a long time without getting tired


Bleep Test - 2 cones 20m apart
     Tape and speakers
         Run in time with bleeps

12 minute cooper run - Run as far as you can in 12 minutes

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Components of Fitness - Flexibility

Flexibility - Abiiltiy to use joints through full range of movements

Sit and Reach

Straight legs and you reach and hold and read of measurement 

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Components of Fitness - Agility

Agility - Abillity to move and change direction quickly

Illanois Agiliity run 
set up cones and run course as fast as you can 

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Components of Fitness - Balance

Balance - Ability to remain stable when moving

Stork Stand 
Stand on tip toes, time how long you hold it

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Components of Fitness - Speed

Speed - Ability to move all or part of the body fast


Time how long it takes to sprint 60m 

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Components of Fitness - Power

Power - Abililty to combine speed with strenght

Standing Broad Jump
Standing, measure from behind last foot
Standing Veritcal Jump - Measure height, jump, mark and measure amount jumped 

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Components of Fitness - Co-ordination

Co-Ordination - Ability to use 2 or more body parts at the same time

Hand wall ball test - how many time can you throw the 2 balls against the wall in 30seconds

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Principles Of Training

When desigining a training shedule you need to follow these 5 principles

pecificity -
 Training needs to be specific to your sport (e.g. Long distance running for a sprinter isnt specific)

Progression - Training has to get harder over time

Overload - Make the body work harder than it is used to

Reversibility - Lose fitness 3x quicker than it is gained

Tedium -  Make sure the training isnt boring, make it enjoyable (change what you do, go train with a friend / music)

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Principles Of Training - 2

There are 4 things we can do to overload our body they are to increase:

Frequency - How often you train (increase from twice a week to 3 times a week)

Intensity - How hard you train

Time - How long you train for (20 mins, increase it to 25 mins) 

Type - The activity we do

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Methods of Training

  • Circuit Training
  • Weight Training
  • Interval Training
  • Continuous Training
  • Fartlek Training
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Circuit Training

Type of training where you have many stations where you do a different exercise on each one.

At each station you have a set time. (Time)

After they have worked out for the set time, they then have a rest time

Circuit training can develop, power, strength, flexibility and endurance.
Circuit training will also develop aerobic and anaerobic respiration. 

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Weight Training

Weight training involve lifting weights to increase the strength of muscles.

You have a programme of sets and reps.

e.g. 10 reps = 1 set and you do 5 sets

To do weight training you can use free weights or fixed weights

Weight training is mainly aimed at muscles

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Continuous Training

Heart is kept at a moderate, steady pace. Keeping the pulse between 60-80% of maximum.

The work specializes in aerobic exercise and aimed at long distance events

Continuous training is mainly to improve the heart and lungs.

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Interval Training

Training involves where you work and then rest.

Can be adopted easily for different sports.
Rest periods for recovery to break down lactic acid.

Short interval training:

  • 15 seconds sprint
  • 30 seconds rest
  • 20 seconds sprint
  • 30 seconds recovery
  • 25 seconds sprint 
  • 1 min recovery 

Can work on aerobic and develop endurance
Can work on anaerobic and develop speed and strength 

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Fartlek Training

Fartlek = Speed Play

You can change the intensity of the training by increasing the...

  • Distance
  • Speed 
  • Amount you do it

Suited for games players.

You have a rest recovery section when you jog

Due to the change of intensity, fartlek develops your aerobic & anarobic fitness

Sprint running and jogging are all involved in fartlek and you mix these around to create a schedule

You make set times for each one.

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Warm Up

A warm up consits of:

  • Pulse Raiser
  • Dynamic and static stretching
  • Sport Specific Activity

Why warm up?

  • Less chance of injury
  • Makes you warm
  • Gets you focused for training / match
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Cool Down

There are two phases of the cool down

  • Light aerobic work
  • Stretching

Why should we warm down?

  • To keep blood flowing around the body to help reduce lactic acid
  • Gradual reduction of heartrate
  • Reduce muscles soreness and acheness
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Open Season - Where competitions and matches take place

Close Season - NO competitive matches, rest, recover and recuperate

Pre-season - Focus on fitness (Cardiovacular Endurance, Speed, Power, Strength, Agility
                   Sport specific skills

Peak Seaon - Still do fitness but only to maintain your level of fitness
             More skill related to matches
                         Avoid Injury

Off Season - Small amount of fitness to maintain
           Rest and recover 

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Altitude Training

Some athlete do altitude training - this is where you travel to a country and train high up in the mountains where they have High Alritude.

Why is it beneficial?

  • Because there body will adapt to lack of oxygen

  • When they are back in england there is much more oxygen so you have more breath for longer.
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