Skeliton and its functions
- blood formation
206 Bones in the body. 4 types:
labeled skeleton diagram
- fibrous (fixed)
- cartilaginous (slightly movable)
- synovial (freely movable)
types of movement:
- flexion - a joint closes
- extension - a joint opens
- abduction - a body part moves away from center of body
- adduction - a body part moves towards center of body
- circumduction - end of a bone draws a circle as it moves
- rotation - bone moves round a pivot point
joints and muscles:
- bones cant move alone , movements caused my muscle contraction, muscles attatched to bones by tendons, bones attatched to eachother ligaments
- involuntary - work automatically when needed eg.blood vessels
- voluntary - told to work eg. hamstring
- cardiac - works automatically at all times - the heart
how muscles work - contraction and relaxation. work mainly in pairs whilst one contracts (gets shorter) the other relaxes (gets longer). this is called working antagonistically. muscle doing the work-agonist. muscle relaxing-antagonist.
muscles attached to bones by tendons.
- Mouth or Nose - air is warmed and filtered and passed through the larynx and pharynx
- Trachea - or windpipe carries air towards the lungs
- Bronchi - the trachea splits into two bronchi, one leads to the left lung and the other to the right
- Bronchioles - once within the lungs the bronchi continue to divide into these smaller tubes
- Alveoli - the bronchioles end in small sacs called alveoli. This is where the gas exchange takes place
inspiration - intercostal muscles pull ribs down and in, diaphragm pulled down.
expiration- intercostal muscles pull ribs down and in, diaphragm pulled up.
respiratory system - gaseous exchange
transfer of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between lungs and capillaries that surround alveoli.
- oxygen passed through thin alveoli walls to red blood cells
- carbon dioxide passed from blood through thin capillarie walls to alveolus.
aerobic and anaerobic exercise
Aerobic - Glucose + oxygen = energy + water + carbon dioxide
- low intensity
- uses oxygen
- produces water and carbon dioxide waste products
- can be done for a long time
- shorter recovery time
Anaerobic - glucose = small amount of energy + lactic acid
- high intensity
- uses glucose
- poisonous waste by product lactic acid
- lack of oxygen (oxygen debt)
- short time
- longer recovery time
pumps blood around body
heart ----> lungs ----->heart ---->body-----> heart
3 main parts, HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, BLOOD.
double pump, 4 chambers.
arteries - blood away from heart. thick elastic walls.
veins - blood back to heart thinner less elastic walls.
capillaries - join the ends of arteries to ends of veins. thin walls one cell thick for gas exchange to take place.
Fluid part of blood, Carries carbon dioxide, hormones and waste
Red blood cells
Contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen, Made in the bone marrow. The more you train the more red blood cells are made.
White blood cell
An important part of the immune system, they produce antibodies and destroy harmful microorganisms, Made in the bone marrow
Clump together to form clots, Protect the body by stopping bleeding