GCSE Child Devlopment (3.1)

A set of revision notes on Parenthood. (AQA) 

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Family Structures and Roles

  • More support and benefits avaliable
  • Unmarried mothers are more socially acceptable.
  • Co-habitation is more socially acceptable.
  • Divorce Laws are simpler.
  • More contraception, improved, lets people have choice. 
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Family Structures and Roles Part 2

  • ROLES:
  • Culture, Religion, Traditions, family size, language, education, hygiene, food, music, songs, drama, literature, art
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Residential Care homes

  • Short term care
  • Local community
  • Family like structure
  • Children with servre disabilities/ behavourial issues
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Looked after children

  • By local authority/ social services.
  • Have a named social worker.


  • Death/ illness of parents
  • Sexual abuse/ neglect.
  • Child has disabilites/ complex needs. 
  • If parents/ carers need restbite care.  
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Foster Care

  • Long term and short term care.
  • Foster parents are trained by local authority and are then paid.
  • Have social workers.
  • Foster children can get in contact with their birth parents when appropriate. 
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Shared Care Family

  • Children spend time in both households.
  • Spend time with BOTH parents.
  • Joint decisions. 
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Adoptive Families

  • Have to pass tests by social services.
  • Nuclear families, single-parent families, same sex couples
  • Perenement homes for babies and older children.

Infertility REASONS:


  • Adoption after remarriage
  • Adoption of a family member
  • Adoption of a disadvantaged child (UK and Abroad)
  • Adoption by couples whp have gentic disorders.
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Step Family

  • Reconstructed/ modified / blended
  • Formed with one or both people in a couple
  • Children from previous relationships
  • Remarried or co-habit
  • Difficult to establish new relationships
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Single Parent Family

As a result of:

  • Divorce
  • Death of a parent
  • Adoption
  • Absent parent, e.g; Navy/ Army 
  • Surrogacy 
  • Single women giving through choice
  • Single women giving birth after a sexual attack
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Types of family

  • Nuclear family- parents and children live together in the home. Contact with other family members is limited, help from them isn't easily avaliable.
  • Extended family- Parents and children live with or near relations, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc... Help IS avaliable.
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Functions of families

  • To provide warmth, shelter, food, water, etc...
  • Role models
  • Provide learning and education
  • Communication skills
  • To make sure that they are happy and feel good in their own skin
  • To develop self disipline, manners and skills for social interaction
  • Physical and health care
  • Secure loving enviroment
  • Culture 
  • Encouragement
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