GCSE Chemistry unit 1 Revision

Gcse Chemistry Unit 1 Revision

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  • Created by: Leah
  • Created on: 08-01-11 19:50

Gas in 'clean air'

The air consists of:

Nitrogen (N )              -------->                 78%

Oxygen (O )                 -------->                 21%

Argon (Ar)                    -------->                    1%

Carbon Dioxide (CO )-------->           0.04%

Water (H O)                  -------->   Variable 0-4

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Pollutants

Human activities add pollutants to the atmosphere:

  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO )
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO )
  • Particles (Carbon)
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Carbon Dioxide

Too much carbon dioxide (CO ) makes it too hot for life.

Too little carbon dioxide (CO ) makes it too cold for life.

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Sulfur Dioxide

This causes acid rain.

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Carbon Monoxide

This is a poisonous gas. It reacts with blood and can kill you.

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Nitrogen Dioxide

Causes acid rain.

Causes breathing problems. - Makes asthma worse.

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Particulates

Makes things dirty.

Breathed into the lungs.

Making breathing difficult and lung infections worse.

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Particle diagram for air

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Pollution

There is more pollution on the city centres because the pollution isnt being carried by the wind therefore it stays in the air above the city centres.

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Writing the Range

DO NOT: find the difference like in maths.

DO: Take the smallest and largest-write like
(5-10)

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Drawing Particles'

Oxygen + Carbon ---> Carbon Dioxide

     (O )    +        (C)    --->           (CO )

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Outliers'

If an outlier occurs...

Record in your Data but remove for calculating the mean etc.

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Fuel Burning in a car engine

Air (nitrogen + oxygen) + Fuel (mixture of hydrocarbons)

---------------->

carbon dioxide + water + nitrogen + carbon monoxide + nitrogen monoxide + particles (carbon)

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Balancing Equations

CH + H O --> CO + 4H O

6 Hydrogen--- 1 Carbon
1 Oxygen------- 3 Oxygen
1 Carbon------- 2 Hydrogen

CH + 2O --> CO +2H O

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Combustion

Some chemicals react rapidly with oxygen to release energy and possible light. This reaction is called combustion.

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Carbon Dioxide When it burns

Chemicals can be shown in pictures:

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Burning rubbish gets rid of it forever. Is this a

No. This statement is wrong. The atoms in the rubbish split into different forms. Something could start off as Oxygen and Hydrogen but after being burned, it turns into Hydrogen Dioxide. Therefore the atoms never disappear, they just join together and change form.

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Properties

Sulfur : Yellow Solid

Oxygen: Colourless gas; no smell; supports life.

Sulfur Dioxide: Colourless gas; sharp; choking smell; harmful to breathe; dissolves in water to form an acid.

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Primary Pollutant

A harmful chemical that human activity adds directly to the atmosphere.

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Secondary Pollutants

A harmful chemical formed in a atmosphere by reactions involving other pollutants.

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Correlation

A correlation is a link between 2 things.

Hay fever is highest in the summer months. This is when most pollen is in the air.

The evidence ^ shows that there is a link/correlation between pollen levels and hay fever attacks. But does this mean that pollen is the cause of hay fever?

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Asthma

NO does not have an effect on asthma sufferers. NO mainly comes from car exhausts.

The efficiency of the lungs can be measured using a peak flow meter. This measures how quickly the aire can be breathed out. It can be used to measure the effects of the air pollution on how well the lungs work.

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Improving air quality

Sustainable development means meeting people's needs without making the environment worse for future generations. This includes producing less air pollution.

Governments try to encourage people to use less air pollution byt enfocing financial incentives (taxes)...

  • car tax
  • fuel duty
  • Energy efficiency grants
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