Gas in 'clean air'
The air consists of:
Nitrogen (N ) --------> 78%
Oxygen (O ) --------> 21%
Argon (Ar) --------> 1%
Carbon Dioxide (CO )--------> 0.04%
Water (H O) --------> Variable 0-4
Human activities add pollutants to the atmosphere:
- Sulfur Dioxide (SO )
- Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- Nitrogen Dioxide (NO )
- Particles (Carbon)
Too much carbon dioxide (CO ) makes it too hot for life.
Too little carbon dioxide (CO ) makes it too cold for life.
This causes acid rain.
This is a poisonous gas. It reacts with blood and can kill you.
Causes acid rain.
Causes breathing problems. - Makes asthma worse.
Makes things dirty.
Breathed into the lungs.
Making breathing difficult and lung infections worse.
Particle diagram for air
There is more pollution on the city centres because the pollution isnt being carried by the wind therefore it stays in the air above the city centres.
Writing the Range
DO NOT: find the difference like in maths.
DO: Take the smallest and largest-write like
Oxygen + Carbon ---> Carbon Dioxide
(O ) + (C) ---> (CO )
If an outlier occurs...
Record in your Data but remove for calculating the mean etc.
Fuel Burning in a car engine
Air (nitrogen + oxygen) + Fuel (mixture of hydrocarbons)
carbon dioxide + water + nitrogen + carbon monoxide + nitrogen monoxide + particles (carbon)
CH + H O --> CO + 4H O
6 Hydrogen--- 1 Carbon
1 Oxygen------- 3 Oxygen
1 Carbon------- 2 Hydrogen
CH + 2O --> CO +2H O
Some chemicals react rapidly with oxygen to release energy and possible light. This reaction is called combustion.
Carbon Dioxide When it burns
Chemicals can be shown in pictures:
Burning rubbish gets rid of it forever. Is this a
No. This statement is wrong. The atoms in the rubbish split into different forms. Something could start off as Oxygen and Hydrogen but after being burned, it turns into Hydrogen Dioxide. Therefore the atoms never disappear, they just join together and change form.
Sulfur : Yellow Solid
Oxygen: Colourless gas; no smell; supports life.
Sulfur Dioxide: Colourless gas; sharp; choking smell; harmful to breathe; dissolves in water to form an acid.
A harmful chemical that human activity adds directly to the atmosphere.
A harmful chemical formed in a atmosphere by reactions involving other pollutants.
A correlation is a link between 2 things.
Hay fever is highest in the summer months. This is when most pollen is in the air.
The evidence ^ shows that there is a link/correlation between pollen levels and hay fever attacks. But does this mean that pollen is the cause of hay fever?
NO does not have an effect on asthma sufferers. NO mainly comes from car exhausts.
The efficiency of the lungs can be measured using a peak flow meter. This measures how quickly the aire can be breathed out. It can be used to measure the effects of the air pollution on how well the lungs work.
Improving air quality
Sustainable development means meeting people's needs without making the environment worse for future generations. This includes producing less air pollution.
Governments try to encourage people to use less air pollution byt enfocing financial incentives (taxes)...
- car tax
- fuel duty
- Energy efficiency grants