GCSE AQA Biology Unit 2 Revision Material Plants and Cells

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  • Created by: chowmein
  • Created on: 12-05-13 18:04

Animal and Plant Cells

Animal Cell

  • Cell membrane - controls what goes in and out of the cell
  • Nucleus - controls the reactions in the cell
  • Mitochondria - respiration here, creates energy
  • Ribosomes - protein synthesis
  • Cytoplasm - where chemical reactions take place

Plant Cell

  • Vacuole - full of cell sap to keep the the cell rigid
  • Cell wall - keep the cell in shape
  • Chloroplast - full of chlorophyll which is needed for photosynthesis
  • Plus the things in an animal cell
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Some Specialized Cells

Sperm Cell

  • Lots of mitochondria for energy to swim
  • Long tail to swim better

Root Hair Cell

  • Large Surface area
  • Near to the xylem so water can be carried into the stem quickly

Fat Cell

  • Little cytoplasm so there is more room for fat
  • Can expand so more fat can be carried
  • Few mitochondria as little energy is needed
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Diffusion and Osmosis


  • Movement of dissolved substances from high to low concentration
  • E.G oxygen from the alveoli in the lungs to the blood


  • Movement of water from a high concentration to a low concentration
  • Through a partially permeable membrane
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Active Transport

Active Transport

  • From a low concentration to a high concentration
  • Requires energy from respiration

A transport protein on the edge of a cell grabs the solute to be transported then spins and releases the solute in the cell, it then rotates back ready to grab another solute if needed.

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  • Water + Carbon Dioxide (+light energy) ----> Oxygen + Glucose
  • The chlorophyll in the chloroplasts absorb light energy for photosynthesis
  • Limiting factors are: temperature, light and carbon dioxide availability.

Leaf Adaptations

  • Large surface area for light to fall on
  • Lots of chloroplasts
  • Veins to bring water to cells
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Plants and Minerals

Roots absorb mineral salts for growth

Nitrates - making protein - growth

Magnesium - making chlorophyll - photosynthesis

If deficient in any of these ions the plant may wither and die as they can't grow or can't photosynthesise

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