GCSE AQA B2 revision cards

Revision card set for the AQA exam, B2. 

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Animal Cells

Cells - all organisms are made up of cells. 

Animal cell contains :

Nucleus - controlls cells activities, contains instructions for makink new cells or organisms. 

Cytoplasm - a liquid gel in which the chemical reactions needed for life take place, e.g respiration. 

Cell membran - controlls passage of substances in and out of the cell. 

Mitochondria - structures in the cytoplasm where most of the energy made in respiration is released. 

Ribosomes - where protein synthesis takes place.


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Plant Cells

Plant cell contains :

All of the above features AND

Cellulose Cell wall - strengthens the cell and gives it support.

Chloroplasts - found in the green part of the plant, contain chlorophyll, absorb light energy to make their food by photosynthesis. 

Permanent vacuole - space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap, keeps the cells rigid to support the plant. 

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Chemical reactions in cells.

In your cells all the time hundreds of different reactions are going on constantly.

Each of these is controlled by a spesific enzyme - this makes sure the reaction takes place correctly. With out getting mixed up in anouther reaction. 

Enzymes are found through out the structure of a cell, but partularly in the mitochondria and chloroplasts. 

Enzyme - a protien - controlls reacactions - e.g 

  • respiration (enzymes found in mitochondria)
  • photosynthesis (enzymes found in chloroplasts)
  • protein synthesis ( enzymes found on the surface of the ribosomes) 
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Specialised Cells

Some cells become specilised so that they can carry out spesific jobs. E.g 

Fat cell

  • Little normal cytoplasm - large area for fat storage
  • Few mitochondria - as they use very little energy
  • They can expand up to 1000x - so it's able to store a lot of fat.

 Root hair cell

  • Root hairs - increase surface area so water can move into the cell
  • Large permanent vacuole - affects water movement from the soil across the cell
  • Always positioned next to the xylem tissue - so it can reach the tissue that carries water up to the rest of the plant fast
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