CHINA'S ONE CHILD POLICY
china has the largest population in the world- 1.3 billion
one child policy introduced in 1979, included: benefits for only one child (longer maternity leave, better housing, free education), couples with two or more children are fined as part of their income.
in rural areas: couples allowed second child if first is a girl or is physically disabled (children needed to work on farms). couples allowed second child if one of the parents is disabled, or both parents are only children. (so there is enough people to look after parents)
effectiveness: prevented 400 million births, fertility rate dropped from 5.7 in 1970 to 1.8 today.
some human rights issues about infanticide of baby girls and forced abortions and sterilisation after first birth
KERALA'S POPULATION POLICY
policy started in 1952. social/communist government encourages smaller families. most dramatic birth rate decrease in india.
included: improving education standards, equal treatment of girls and boys, provision of adult literacy classes and benefits taught about smaller families, improvement of children's health due to vaccination programmes, free contraception/advice, encouraged higher age of marriage, maternity leave for first 2 children only.
land reform programme: land redistributed so that everyone had equal land (8ha) larger famillies at disadvantage
effectiveness: higher life expectancy, higher adult literacy rate, higher GDP per capita. overall quality of life has increased dramatically.
more friendly than china's policy, but in some ways less effective but still successful
AGEING POPULATIONS- UK
in 2008, over 65s outnumbered under 16s for the first time
people drawing pensions for longer, increased need for healthcare and social services, government relies on tax payers money to provide pensions so taxes rise, more carehomes/carers needed. COST OF MAINTAINING LEVELS OF CARE EXPECTED TO REACH £24 Bn BY 2026.
raise taxes, reduce spending on pensions, cut costs, raise retirement age, restricted drug availability could cripple health service.
benefits: happy to continue working, established industries (stairlifts etc), businesses recruting retired workers
AGEING POPULATIONS - FRANCE
france's pro-natal policy proved unsuccessful as the birth rate still continued to decrease
3 years paid parental leave for mother and father
full time paid schooling starts at 3
day care for under-3s is subsidised by government
more children=earlier retirement
full pension for women
AGEING POPULATIONS - ITALY
second lowest birth rate in Europe, predicted that 40% of the population will be over 60 and 15% will be under 16 by the end of this century. by 2050 the population could drop from 56m to 40m
14% of italy's national income is spent on pensions. tradition of early retirements with men able to retie at 57 and 65 if they have worked for 35 years. means that the country has less people willing to work/of working age as too many people are retiring and not enough children are being born
government wants to raise the minimum retiremement age to 62 and give incentives to work longer
AGEING POPULATIONS - GERMANY
by 2030, it is predicted that there will be 7m less workers and 8.5m more over 65s. 4 workers to every retiree, but could halve to 2 per retiree.
fertility rate is very low, in the last 30 years woman have produced an average of 1.3 children. possibly because german schools run from 8am-1pm leaving little time for parents to work and look after children.
schroeder's agenda 2010:
a reform programme targeted at raising germany's low economic growth and reducing the high levels of unemployment. helping to reform the pension system to ensure that it is successful when the next generation retires.
MIGRATION FROM POLAND TO THE UK (2004)
push factors- high unemployment (19%), low average wages (1/3 of the average EU wage), housing shortages (300 housings for every 1000 people)
pull factors- ease of migration (UK allowed unlimited migration in 2004, not all countries did), more work available and higher wages (high demand for tradesmen e.g plumbers + builders), good exchange rate.
impacts on poland- ploand's population fell by 0.3% between 2003 and 2007. shortage of workers in poland as those that did not move were too young/old to work- slowed economy down. economy was boosted though due money being sent home- around 3 billion euros were sent home in 2006.
impacts on the UK- population went up slightly. immigration boosted the UK economy, but a lot of the money made in the UK was sent home. new shops selling Polish produce opened to serve the polish communities. attendance at the catholic church went up (many poles are catholic)
REFUGEE MIGRATION FROM NORTH AFRICA TO SPAIN
refugees from africa cros the mediteranean sea to spain. in 2001, 45000 emigrants were caught and refused entry into spain. many were refugees from war in central and western african countries. for example, 2 million were forced from their homes between 1991 and 2002 due to a civil war in Sierra Leone.
impacts on african countries:
working population is reduced so there are less people contributing to the economy - economy decreases, families become separated.
impacts on spain:
social tension between immigrants and spaniards. more unskilled workers in spain which fills the gap in the labour market. average wages for unskilled workers has fallen as there are more people who want the jobs. birth rate has increased as many immigrants are young.
OBSTACLES TO DEVELOPMENT - THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE
details: haiti is the poorest country in the western world, earthquake with a magnitude of 7 hit haiti on 12th january 2010. 230000 people died, 300000 injured. 1.5m homeless, 250000 homes destroyed and 30000 government/commercial buildings damaged/collapsed. after the earthquake, 200 people died from cholera and a further 2000 have the illness,
many haitians can't afford new houses and little rebuilding has taken place, most residents have been asked to pay US$2000 so that rebuilding could start to take place, but they can't afford it. there is also little emplyment as most buildings were destroyed so the income has decreased. aid agencies have been encouraging citizens to move into refugee camps rather than return to normal. most of the aid is also short term emergency aid so little money is being allocated for rebuilding projects. the cycle of poverty is becoming harder to break.
before the earthquake: GNI=950, life expectancy=61.7, HDI=0.404, infant mortality=65, literacy rate=62%. all of these have become worse since the earthquake. development was already lower and the earthquake was another set back. the country is now even further from being developed.
CAHORA BASSA DAM, MOZAMBIQUE (large-scale developm
bilateral aid, set up by the portugese government in 1960s-1970s (stopped by war), largest HEP in the south of africa with 5 turbines.
lots of environmental damage caused, river flow slowed, shrimp fishing destroyed. the dam had the power to supply the whole country but only 1% of rural homes get direct supply of power, most is sold to South Africa. the money sold doesnt benefit rural citizens, only the government.
it isn't sustainable as it has destroyed some fishing industries and caused environmentsl damage, it is currently mismanaged. only the government and south africa benefits. could become sustainable if it is used to its full advantage.
GRAMEEN BANK (small scale development project)
set up by nobel prize winner, Muhammad Yunus in Bangladesh. 41% of Bangladeshis live on less than US$1 per day. the bank was set up to provide small loans to people (mainly women as they tend to be more reliable in repaying them) so that they can start their own businesses. the women can then sell crafts, snacks or rent out mobile phones for example. when they have profitted, they can chose to pay the loan back immediately, or take another loan out. the bank has lent out around $1bn to over 7m people, nearly all the women in the country's 78000 villages.
the scheme has helped raise families out of poverty as many households will have dual incomes if both parents are working. as women are working, they have less time to have children so there is more money to be split between members of the household. as families have more money, the life expectancy has increased. many countries (inc. USA) are copying the project in 'micro-credit' schemes.
SAFE WATER IN THE PUNJAB (small scale devlopment p
before the project:
women and children had to walk for up to 6km to find water. this would take 3-6 hours everyday. most of the water they collected was dirty, contaminated water. children often became ill with diarrhoea and cholera was a problem in the wet season but noone had the money to visit a doctor.
during the project (1995-2002):
development aid money was used for installing water pumps and pipes to bring clean water to 350 villages and 1m rural dwellers. the project was community based as the villagers had a voice in planning and construction.
in 2003: drop of 90% water born diseases, school enrolement up 80%, household incomes up 20% (women can work) more produce is grown so more can be sold, women have more dignity
YOUTH EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME, UGANDA. (small scale
Student Partnership Worldwide (SPW) places gap year students in development projects in countries like uganda. they help to raise awarness of AIDs, improve knowledge of environmental health concerns, teach energy conservation methods and organic farming.
winners: villagers. in Kebager village; access to safe, non-polluted water due to covering water tanks. in Bwanyanger Village; schools recieved SPW students as volunteer teachers who taught sexual health and life skills
losers: the villagers who can't afford for their children to attend school
it's sustainable because people are living longer, they can use new farming techniques. they've learnt to care for the environment using sustainable techniques. skills learnt can be passed down generations. economy increases as more crop is produced to sell.
DEVLOPMENT IN EU - GERMANY AND BULGARIA
1. export industries and strong welfare, hit by financial crisis 08-09, rebounded in 2010. 2. current social issues; ageing population, former solviet-diominant east struggled to catch up with west. 3. allies in recent conflicts; 1950s, one of 6 founding nations of EU.
population: 82m, GNI: US$38860, HDI: 0.935, life expectancy: 79.
1. communist past; transition to democracy has been hard, through 1990s lots of political unrest. 2. corruption + organised crime; tough entry requirements to EU, no aid in 2008, france and germany blocked Bulgaria.
population: 8m, GNI: US$4590, HDI: 0.824, life expectancy: 73
THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND URBAN II FUND
common agricultral fund:
this is a system of subsidies for produce. 48% of the EU's budget is spent on it.The aim of the CAP is to provide farmers with a reasonable standard of living, customers with quality food at good prices and to preserve rural heritage. it combines payments for crops with price 'support mechanisms' such as guaranteed minimum prices, import tariffs and quotas.
urban II fund:
guidelines about economic and social regeneration of cities and neighbourhoods in crisis to promote sustainable urban development. the scheme lends money to deprived areas so that they can sustainably increase the well being of the area.
(not too sure about the urban II fund bit, but that is what i understood about it from school)
TOURISM IN THE UK - BLACKPOOL
growth of blackpool increased until around 1990, when Blackpool was affected by the increased number of people visitng countries abroad. visitor numbers dropped from 17m to 11m, 1000 hotels closed down, 300 holiday homes closed and how full hotels were dropped to under 25%. in 2000, some b+b's were charging little over £10 per night. families were scared as Blackpool became the destination for many stag nights and hen parties. beach and sea became polluted and the beach was eroded by the sea.
since 2001, derelict buildings have been pulled down, car parks have been landscaped, the beaches have been cleaned up, and the facilities improved. now three of the beaches have 'blue flag status'. the blackpool illuminations are being transformed by a £10m investment. waterworld opened in 2006, walkways are planning to be covered, Blackpool put in a bid to house a supercasino. some people hoped that blackpool would become the las vegas of UK.
the casino bid failed and the hotel ocuppancy rates remained 25%. most people realise that blackpool will have to rely on daytrippers and one night stays, although competition is increasing. pleasure beach is the UK's most visited atraction.
MASS TOURISM - KENYA
benefits: economic- earns foreign exchange, increase the size of domestic economy, reduces trade deficit, provides jobs, environmental-saves wildlife, raises awareness.
negative impacts: visitor numbers fluctuate, damages environment, littering, conflicts arise locals lose livelihood.
numbers have increased because of availability, easier to travel, kenya has been able to improve country making it attractve to more people.
the country is becoming overally dependant on the industry as tourism is the biggest money maker and when there is a decline in numbers, the whole country suffers from it
ECOTOURSM - ECUADOR
why Ecuador? large biodiversity, range of habitats/wildlife, local culture.
benefits: environmentally friendly, natural, susatainable energy used, no waste is generated that can't be dealt with. local food, locals gain income, jobs made,
costs: people can only arrve on small boats, only allowed in certain areas, only small amounts of people allowed at one time, expensive, some sites are over used.
succesful because it is sustainable, although the journey there is not environmentally friendly.
there are strict rules e.g no removal of plants/animals.
48 visitor landing sites
'new china express' sustainable train.
EXTREME TOURISM - ANTARTICA
why? scenery, wildlife, activities like cruises, kayaking, climbing, helicopter rides.
why has it increased in popularity? more thrill seekers, more activities, more accessible, appeals to tourists, ship sizes increased. 9000 tourists in 1992 has grown to 37000 in 2006 and 46000 in 2008 and the numbers are expected to double over the next 10 years. 100+ companies offer extreme holidays to antartica.
impacts: sea pollution, littering, fragile resources.
sustainability: supervision of tourists means; no littering, no contact with animals, no walking on lichens, no tresspassing, permit must be gained for activities.
can be more sustainable by increasing the amount of people per boat and increasing the amount of supervisors.