GCSE Additional Science: Biology - AQA

these revision cards touch on every subject needed to be learnt for the entire additional science, biology course on the AQA examantion board. these notes are created by a GCSE student freaking out about the exam. they also contain some light hearted humour because how else are you going to learn?

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Animal Cells

Whats inside the animal cell?


Nucleus - think of this as the control center of the cell and it contains genetic material.

Cytoplasm - most of the chemical processes take place in here and it's controlled by emzymes.

Cell Membrane - think of this as the gates into the cell, it contols what goes in and what goes out.

Mitochondia - most of the reactions for respiration take place here.

Ribosomes - these have little protein babies!

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Plant Cells

So, what's inside a plant cell?

Plant cells like to have it all, so everything that an animal cell has, a plant cell has. But, they also have 3 other things that animal cells don't have.


Rigid Cell Wall - this is made from cellulose which helps support and strengthen the cell.

Permanet Vacuole - this contains cell sap, which is a weak solutiion of sugar and salts.

Chloroplasts - this is where photosynthesis occurs. it contains green chlorophyll.

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Basic Diagrams

This is a basic diagram of an animal cell:


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Basic Diagrams

This is a basic diagram of a plant cell:


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Cells have structures that are specialised to they can carry out their function. Similar cells are grouped together to make a tissue and different tissues work together as an organ. Groups of organs working together make up an organ system. Groups of organs and organ systems working together create a full organism like you or me!

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Specialised Cells

Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry this function out.

Palisade Leaf Cells

cross section through a leaf cell (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_07.gif)

Packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis. More of them are crammed at the top of the cell, so they're nearer the light

Tall shape means a lot of surface area exposed fown the side for absorbing CO from the air in the leaf.

Thin shape means that you can pack loads of them at the top of the leaf.

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Root Hair Cells

root hair cell - has a head and tail (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_08.gif)

Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil.

Long 'finger-like' process with a very thin wall, which gives it a large surface area.

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Red Blood Cells

red blood cells (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/aqaaddsci_10.gif)

Concave shape gives a big surface area for absorbing oxygen. It also helps them pass smoothly through capillaries to reach body cells.

They're packed with haemoglobin - the pigment that absorbs the oxygen.

They have no nucleus, to leave even more room for haemoglobin.

Red blood cells are an important part of the blood.

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:) PurpleJaguar (: - Team GR


lol ribosomes have little protein babies


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