GCSE Urban Challenges Rio

  • Created by: Darcy_bx
  • Created on: 11-04-18 10:48


Faster in LICs because...

  • More people in HICs already live in urban areas
  • More development in LICs
  • Rural HIC places still have a good quality of life

Rural-Urban Migration= Countryside- towns/ cities

  • Push and pull factors
  • Increase population
  • Child-bearing age so natural increase

Natural Increase= birth rate higher than death rate

  • More people to work and fuel urbanisation
  • More kids as better quality of life
  • Better services= lower death rate

Megacity= city with population in excess of 10mil people

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Rio's Importance


  • Guanara bay- recreation
  • Over 50 museums- rich culture
  • Main service industries= banking, finance and insurance


  • Stunning scenery- tourism
  • Cultural capital- carnival/ celebrations
  • 2nd most important industrial centre- 5% GDP


  • 2016 Olympics and 2014 World Cup
  • Statue of Crist- 7 new wonders of the world
  • Major port- coffee, sugar and iron ore
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Rio's Opportunities

Access to Resources-

  • Industrialised= safer and more job opportunities
  • More resuorces with development

Access to Jobs/ Money-

  • Olympics gained job opportunities
  • Tourism and trade
  • Industrial development= more jobs

Access to Services-

  • More development- morefamilies afford services
  • Increased income
  • More educated children can work and develop
  • Better quality of life and increased life expectancy
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Rio's Growth

  • Trading/ business opportunities- Chinese and South Korean migrants
  • Increased development- skilled workers from UK and USA
  • Tourism and Olympics- migrants and income
  • Common language- portugese migrants


  • Better trading- highre income
  • More skilled workers= development
  • Rio= global city- 5 ports and 3 airports


  • Olympics= Rio is more exposed
  • Overpopulation
  • Pollution= no tourism
  • Limited facilities/ distressed locals
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Land Uses

North Zone-

  • Industrial and Port, International Airport and Maracana Stadium
  • Favelas, Tijuca National Park

West Zone-

  • Barra de Tijuca- wealthy area, Campo Grande- industrial
  • Olympic Stadiums

South Zone-

  • Developed tunnels through mountains, Tourist hotels and beaches
  • Wealthiest district in SA, Overlooked by Rochina


  • Historic and old, CBD/ main shopping
  • Financial centre
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Social Challenges

Health Care-

  • 55% city local health clinic (2013)- health kits to homes in Santa Marta
  • av life expectancu 63- medica; staff detected and treated illnesses


  • Cumpolsery 6-14, only half after- Free lessons in sport and school grants
  • Poor teachers and shortage of schools- Private uni in Rochina

Water Supply-

  • 12% no access- 95% pop mains water supply in 2014
  • 37% of water lost through leaky pipes- 300km new pipes
  • 80yrs water drought- 7 new treatment plants 1998 and 2014

Energy Supply-

  • Not enough- Simplicio hydro electric complex- 30% increased supply
  • Poorer areas illegally tap into mains- new nuclear generator
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Economic Challenges

Infomal Economy- Employment outside government knowledge- over 20% people in favelas unemployed- Poorly paid (60 a month), unreliable, 3.5mil no insurance.

Positive growth-

  • Better quality of life
  • 6% of Brazil's employment
  • Oil discovered- industries

Negative growth-

  • Protests
  • Richest 1% earns 12% of income, poorest 50% earn 13%
  • Poorer communities cant pay tax

Unemployment- Schools of Tomorrow

Crime Problem= 2013 Passifying Police Units, police take control of favelas

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Environmental Challenges

Air Pollution- 

  • 5000 deaths
  • Brown smog- pollutants, traffic, Atlantic mist

Traffic Congestion- (most congested in SA)

  • high crime, pollution and stress- new toll roads
  • tunnels through mountains- expansion of metro system under guanara bay
  • n of cars 40% increase in decade- coast roads one way

Water Pollution- Guanara Bay

  • many of 5 rivers are polluted (open favela sewers)- 5km new sewage pipes
  • 200 tonnes raw sewage, 50 industrial waste, oil spills- 12 new sewage banks 2004- $68m

Waste Pollution-

  • Difficult access so waste dumped in mountains- power plant with methane gas
  • Causes diseases and rats-                                   30tonnes of rubbish a day consumed
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Favelas= squatter settlements, 60% in suburbs, 25% outer city


  • 75,000 population 2010- 3 x higher now
  • Overlooks wealthy Copacabana
  • 90% houses water, electricity and sewage- tvs and fridges
  • Schools, health, unis, retail


  • More people stay in countryside with rural development- cultural activities
  • People to Barra de Tijuca to reduce overcrowding


  • 2010- 244 poeple killed, 13000 lost homes in landslide
  • murder rate 20 per 1000 people, gang control
  • Av income less than $75 a month
  • Infant mortality- 50 per 1000, 50% homes no sewage and 30% no electricity
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The Favela Bairro Project

1980s attitudes changed and government tried to develop favelas instead of destroying them.


  • Passifying Police Unit
  • 100% mortgages available and access to credit and water/ drainage
  • Cable car system and paved roads
  • Hillsides secured


  • New infrastructure not maintained- residents lack skills/ resources
  • $1bil budget not cover all favelas
  • Rents rise
  • More training for literacy and employment necessary

Olympic Effect-

  • 1000 people lost homes, 3000 more scheduled to be destroyed
  • 800 new homes in Campo Grande (WZ)- 90min drive to centre- no where for children
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