GCSE Psychology Topic A

Depth Cues

Relative Size- Bigger objects on the retina and percieved to be closer

Texture Gradient- A more detailed area appears to be closer tan less detailed areas

Height in the Plane- Objects closer to the horizon are percieved to be more distant than ones below or above the horizon

Superimposition- A parlty hidden object most be further away than the object covering it

Linear Perspective- Parallel lines appear to meet in the distance

Size Constancy- We percieve an object as the same size even when its distance from us changes

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Illusory Contour- A boundary that is percieved in a figure but is not present in the stimulus

Motion After Effect- An illusion caused by paying attention to movement in one direction and percieving movement in the opposite direction afterwards

Colour After Effect- An illusion caused by focusing on a coloured stimulus and seeing opposite colours immediatly afterwards

Fiction illusionsA fiction illusion occurs when we percieve a shape that is not really there, an example of this is the Kanisza Triange. it is common in fiction illusions to perceive an illusory contor.

Ambiguous FiguresWhen a picture or stimulus can be percieved in two ways, this is called an ambiguous figure, you can only percieve one interpretation at a time however. An example of this is the Necker Cube or Leepers Lady

Distortion Illusions When our perception is decieved by some aspect of the stimulus, this is called a distortion illusion. An example of this is the Ponzo illusion or the Muller Lyer illusion

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Gestalt Laws

Gestalt laws are perceptual rules that we automatically use to organise stimuli and the environment around us.

Proximity- Objects which are close together are percieved to be related, these objects can be the same or different

Similarity- Usually with objects that are the same, figures are grouped together to create a group object

Figue and Ground- Our ability to differentiate figure and ground, certain parts of the image are seen as to be at the back and parts are seen to be closer

Closure- Lines or shapes are percieved as complete figues even when parts are missing

Continuity-  Straight lines, curves and shapes are percieved to carry on and keep being the same

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The Eye

Rods- Light sensitive cells in the retina that respond to even dim light

Cones- Light sensitive cells in the retina which respond to colour

Optic Nerve- the optic nerve connects the eye to the brain, it carries the impulses formed by the retina towards the brain which interpret them as images

Blind Spotthe blind spot is the area in your visual field where these is no rods or cones so therfore you are essentially blind as no information is found or stored there. Your blind spot is important as when you are driving you have to be aware of it.

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The Brain

The Brain (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wNtliVCFeZc/UjV_1mtfMII/AAAAAAAABSI/EZaapnExCPc/s1600/brain+pic.png)Optic Chiasma- The cross shape where some information from the left and right eye cross over to pass into the opposite side of the brain.

Visual Cortex- The area at the back of thebrain which is responsible for our eyes and what we see, it interprets visual information

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Research Methods and Ethics

Informed consent- Whenever possible investigators should obtain the consent of participants

Debreif- After the research is over the participant should be able to discuss the procedure and the findings with the psychologist

Protection of participants- Researchers must ensure that those taking part in research will not be caused distress. They must be protected from physical and mental harm

Deception- The researcher should avoid deceiving participants about the nature of the research unless there is no alternative – and even then this would need to be judged acceptable by an independent expert

Confidentiality- Participants, and the data gained from them must be kept anonymous unless they give their full consent

Withdrawl from investigation- Participants should be able to leave a study at any time if they feel uncomfortable

Independent groups- Where different participants in two or more groups take pert in different conditions, this means there is no order effects

Repeated Measures- The same participants take part in both conditions

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Mean- The average; all the results added together then divided on how many results there are

Median- The middle result

Mode- The most common result

Range- The range between the mallest and biggest number (biggest-smallest)

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IV- Independent variable, this is what the researcher changes in the study

DV- TDependent Variable, this is what is measured in the study

Control- What is in place in a study to keep it fair

EV- Extraneous Variables, what could potentially mess up or effect results, for example the environment or what mood the participants are in

Hypothesis- A testable statement which can be tested about what may happen in the study

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Palmer (1975)

AIM- To find out if context would effect perception

METHOD- 64 students were shown visual scenes, for example a kitchen. These scenes were shown for two seconds then provided a context. The participant was then brieflt shown an object to identify.

  • Appropriate- recognising a loaf after seeing a kitchen scene
  • Inapropriate similar object- Recognisisng a mail box after seeing a loaf
  • Inapropriate different object- Recognising a drum after seeing a kitchen scene
  • No context

The study was repeated on each participant making it a repeated measures design for every condition.

RESULTS- More participants correctly identified the most objects after seeing an appropriate context

CONCLUSION- What we have previously seen effects perception

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